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Police Patrol Operations and Management

3 basic styles of policing
Watchman, legalistic, service style.
Exercise of Discretion of a patrol officer
Make decisions based upon what is needed and appropriate at the moment. Tailor actions to the needs of the community. Recognize that an enforcement standard considered acceptable in one patrol area may not be acceptable in another. Accept responsibility for police work that is responsive to local expectations and conditions.
Citizen review board better that internal review
More objective and thorough investigation. Higher rate of sustained complaints with more discipline. Greater deterrence of misconduct. Higher levels of satisfaction.
Three common forms of government.
Mayor-council. Manager-council. Commission. Chiefs preference manager form (professional and insulated from politics).
Occupational stress sources in police
Nature of police work, the police organization, external factors, individual factors.
Neutralizing cynicism
Police selection methods. Supervisor’s trained to detect. EAP, job rotation, aggressive career development programs, and in-service training programs to develop new skills and abilities.
5 characteristics viewed as important to police work success that create contradictory expectations.
Emotionally restrained vs. express. Empathetic vs. firm. Group dependent vs. independent. Work hard vs. accept failure. Patient vs. stubborn.
Ways Supervisor’s contribute to stress
Unjust criticism/scapegoating. Lack of counseling skills. Unrealistic expectations. Contemptuous attitude. Insufficient concern. Poor communication skills. Excessive autocracy/lack of consensus.
Organizational stressors
Autocratic. Hierarchial structure. Poor supervision. Lack of employee input. Excessive paperwork. Lack of admin support. Role conflict/ambiguity. Inadequate pay/resources. Adverse work schedules. Unfair discipline/evaluation/promotion.
Factors contributing to police corruption.
Nature of police work. Officers clientele. Public attitudes. Leadership.
Types of training to avoid excessive use of force
Cultural sensitivity/diversity. Intervention by fellow officers. Interaction of human perception and threat assessment. Decision making. Psychological methods of situation control. Deescalation/defusing techniques. Verbal control and communication.
Standard in Wise vs. Bravo to decide if force was excessive.
1. Causes serious bodily injury. 2. Injury was grossly disproportionate to the need for action. 3. Action was inspired by malice rather than merely careless or unwise zeal.
Recommendations in use of force policies
No warning shots. Strict restriction on shots at or from moving vehicles. Restriction on secondary weapons. Department should control type of weapon and ammunition. Officers involved in shooting place on admin leave. Psychological counseling.
3 categories of police pursuits
1. Judgmental. 2. Restrictive. 3. Discouragement.
Advantages of Specialized Patrol
Clear placement of responsibility. High levels of morale. Improved training/skill development. Positive public interest. High level of staff commitment to responsibilities.
Basic principles of police organization
Simplicity. Organizing by function. Chain of command. Unity of command. Informal organization.
Patrol force staffing determinate
Custom and tradition. Political expediency. Financial limitations.
Purpose of workload analysis
Determine need for additional resources or reallocation of existing resources. Assess individual/group performance and productivity. Detect trends in workload that might indicate changing activity levels and conditions.
Ways Supervisor’s achieve high motivation levels.
Encourage self-development. Delegate responsibility. Recognize exemplary performance. Show confidence in subordinates. Demand accountability.
Why not to restrict the ability for citizens to file complaints?
1. Agency sends message that not interested in policing self. 2. Weakens own internal inspection program by not seeking out improper conduct or promoting self discipline.
Ways Supervisor’s achieve high motivation levels.
Encourage self-development. Delegate responsibility. Recognize exemplary performance. Show confidence in subordinates. Demand accountability.
Why not to restrict the ability for citizens to file complaints?
1. Agency sends message that not interested in policing self. 2. Weakens own internal inspection program by not seeking out improper conduct or promoting self discipline.

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