Linking Pin System
Each supervisor is a coordinator and conduit of information between management and lower level workers
Traditional – task oriented, authoritarian
Innovative – community policing type
Supportive – “one of the boys”
Active – leads by example, worker, ofcr with stripes
4 types of supervisors (Engel)
Situational or Contingency Theory
Nature of subordinates is the key to determining which management style will be most successful
A condition where norms are established by the work group.
Management by Exception
A supervisor doesn’t have time to supervise all activities therefore he/she should devote energy & time to only exceptional task.
Level 5 Leader
Jim Collins, author of Good to Great, coined this term to describe ambitious leaders who are devoted to the success of the organization.
Culture of Discpline
A conditon where employees show extreme dilegence and intensity in their thoughts, actions, and focus on implementing the organizations mission, purpose, and goals.
Was a Lt in the NY transit police and developed the crime management tool – CompStat.
Commitment – maintain strong work ethics
Complexity – keeping abreast of legal, technical issues
Credibility – being recognized by others
According to Bennis & Nanus, leadership must be examined in 3 major context.
Zone of Indifference
When subordinates do not respect their leaders or question his directives
Katz identified 3 essential skills for leaders:
Grant made by organization to a position which the person occupying yields.
Foundation of leadership; neccessary ingrediant in influencing others to act.
aka: Participative Management, Dispersed Leadership, Open-book Management, Industrial Democracy and follows the theory of developing future leaders.
Telling, Selling, Participating, Delegating
A continuum, or phases, of leader & follower actions that progress through 4 cycles with the end results being a confident, self-directed, motivated officer (Gove).
Interpersonal, Informational, Decision Maker
Mintzberg’s Model of Police Executives roles:
Uses strategic thinking and strategic planning:
Departmental and City Leadership
The first step in a planning cycle is identifying the planning team (stakeholders) which includes:
A set of processes that arouse, direct, and maintain human behavior toward some goal.
Needs – Goal Model
Individual seeks to fulfill a need and the need is transformed into behavior directed toward satisfying need:
1. Content Theory
2. Process Theory
2 catagories of Motivational Theory:
Focuses on the needs, wants, desires, and attempt to explain internal needs that motivate peoples behavior
Attempt to explain how people are motivated and focus on interplay of individual with forces in the workplace.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
States people are motivated by their lowest level of unsatisfied need.
Argyris’s Maturity – Immaturity Theory
States people naturally progress from immaturity to maturity.
Herzberg’s Motivation – Hygiene Theory
States that 2 vital factors are found in all jobs:
1. Factors that influence job dissatisfaction (Hygiene)
2. Factors that influence job satisfaction (Motivators)
McClelland’s Achievement, Power, Affiliation Theory
States that people have needs that are acquired over time as a result of experience. It identifies 3 motives important to people within an organization:
1. Need for Achievement
2. Need for Power
3. Need for Affiliation
Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
States that people are motiviated by a felt need that affects behavior. It also adds the issue of motivation strength (people aren’t motivated if the reward is not worth the effort).
Trait Theory, Behavioral Theories, Contingency Theory
3 catagories of Leadership Theories
Assumed that some people were born leaders and that good leaders could be studied to determine the special traits that leaders possess.
Focus on a leader’s behavior in relation to their environment.
1. Authority – Compliance management
2. Country Club management
3. Middle-of-the-road management
4. Impoverished management (worst)
5. Team management (best)
The Managerial Grid developed by Blake & Mouton has 2 dimensions: concern for production and concern for people. It identifies 5 principal leadership styles:
Developed by Hersey & Blanchard it states the best way to lead depends on the situation. It is used in many major corporations and the military. It emphasizes the leader’s behavior in relationship to the follower’s behavior. It requires the leader to evaluated the follower in 2 ways: Willingness (motivation) and Ability (competence)
Change the organizational situation to fit the leader’s style (aka Contigency Theory)
Situational theories are based on the concept of leader flexibitlity: successful leaders must change their leader ship style as they confront different situations but not all leaders are so flexible. Fred Fielder developed on strategy for over coming these obstacles.
1. People have a need to achive a sense of competence
2. The way people fulfill the need varies
3. Competent motivation likely to occur when there is a fit between task and organization
4. A sense of competency continues to motivate people.
Basic components of Contingency Theory:
1. Postition Power
2. Personal Power
2 types of power:
1. Develop a sense of obligation by members toward the manager.
2. Develop a belief in members that manager has a high level of expertise.
3. Develop a sense of identification members have with manager.
4. Develop a perception in members that they are dependent on the manager.
4 ways to increase Personal Power:
1. Exploitive – Authoritarian
2. Benevolent – Authoritarian
Likert’s 4 types of Leadership Styles:
When a problem cannot be solved with one’s existing knowledge and skills and requires people to make a shift in their expectations, attitudes, or habits of behavior.
1. Being able to recognize when challenge requires adaptive work.
2. Adaptive change will cause distress in people being led.
3. Keep focused on the real issue
4. Ensure the people who need to make the change take the responsibility for doing the work themselves.
Ronald Hiefetz describes adaptive problems and technical problems. He argues that mere technical fixes will not work with drug and social problems. He descibes 4 principles in bringing about adaptive change:
COPPS – community oriented policing and problem solving
Collaborative problem solving and seeks to improve the quality of policing.
1. Police must be equipped and clearly understand the problem.
2. Must develop a commitment to analyzing problems
3. Must encourage an uninhibited search for the most effective response.
Goldstein established there are several steps to the successful accomplishement of COPPS:
1. CPTED – crime prevention through environmental design
2. SCP – situational crime prevention
2 important crime prevention concepts:
1. Natural access control
2. Natrual surveillance (proper lighting, window placement)
3. Territorial Reinforcement (sidewalks, landscape)
CPTED aims to prevent crime by:
1. Increase the effort needed
2. Increase the risk
3. Reduce the provocations
4. Remove the excuses
SCP aims to prevent crime by making the setting less conducive by:
1. Allow problem solving as a self-initiated activity
2. Allow 1 or 2 units to devote part of the shift to problem solving
3. Take more reports by phone
4. Review policy on “assist” units
4 methods of finding time for COPPS activity:
1. Specific objectives
2. Accurate & timely intelligence
3. Effective tactics
4. Rapid deployment of resources
5. Relentless follow-up and assessment
Key elements of CompStat
The art of gaining compliance or selling people on an idea.
The process by which the sender transmits some type of information to another person, group, or organization.
3. Express feelings or opinions
Lussier expands to say communications occur with the intent to:
2. Chose a channel (formal or informal)
3. Chose a medium
5 steps to communication:
1. Content of message is more complex
2. Critical the receiver has the information
3. Information is drastically different than before
4. A disruption in communications process
Feedback should increase when:
Formal or Informal
2 types of communications:
1. Job instructions
2. Rationale / explanations about job
3. Policies, procedures, practices
4. Feedback on individual performance
5. Efforts to encourage a sense of mission
5 catagories of formal communications:
Peters and Wellman found that increases levels of __________ were associated with organizational success.
Operates mostly in the work place
Supplments formal communications
Tool for mgmnt to get a feel for employee attitudes, spread useful info
A way for employees to vent
Rumors and “grapevine” can carry falsehoods, cynicism, and malice but it can also have benefits such as:
1. Status – people judge the information by status / ability of sender
2. Stereotyping – judgements made about the info because of the senders traits or qualities
3. Value Judgements – info consistent with older info given more credibility
4. Semantic Problems – receiver decodes the message improperly.
Perceptual problems of communication:
2. Active Listening
2 ways to enhace communications:
1. Quality – both sides come to a win-win solution
2. Cost – time & energy spent
3. Harmony – feelings after conflict resolved
3 criteria to judge effectiveness of negotiations:
A situation which 2 or more people disagree over issues of organizational substance and experience some emotional antagonism
1. Individual / group with opposing interest
2. Acknowledge that opposing view points exist
3. Belief by parties the other will attempt to deny their goal
4. one, or both, have overtly attmepted to thwart the others goal
4 elements of conflict:
Conflict occurs on 4 levels:
1. Competition over resources
2. Ambiguity over authority
3. Organizatioinal reward system
4. Power differential
Organizational causes of conflict:
1. Failure to properly communicate
2. Faulty attributes
5. Personal characteristics
Interpersonal causes of conflict:
2 supervisory skills for intervention in conflict involves:
1. Avoidance – sup. refuses to recognize
2. Accomodation – sup. attempts to smooth over
3. Competition – sup. forces issue to make decision
4. Compromise – sup. searches for solution for both
5. Collaboration – sup. attempt to work through (seeks solution where both sides win)
5 means of addressing conflict:
1. Conceptual skills
2. Leadership skills
3. Interpersonal skills
4. Administrative skills
5. Technical skills
5 areas suspervisor needs compotence:
4. Professional / civic organizations
Aspects of professional development:
Refers to how well police provide services to citizens:
4 general concerns of measuring productivity:
1. knows what it wants to accomplish
2. knows its citizens
3. knows its business
4. understands the demands of business (resource, budget, personnel)
5. knows its people
6. provides feedback to constituents on police activity
6 attributes of a healthy police department:
2. Problem Solving
3. Citizen surveys
4 innovations to improved productivity:
An administrative process that drives agency vision, mission, and goals.
Rooted in the ancient Greek idea of character; doing what is right and correct.
Examines one’s duty to act
1. growing level of temptation from drug trade
2. compromising nature of police culture (exhalts loyalty over integrity)
3. challeges of decentralization (pushing decision making downward)
3 critical factors of ethical issues in policing:
Have only two sides – either good or bad, black or white.
Multisided, more complicated with shades of gray.
Noble Cause Corruption
Corruption committed in the name of good ends, comes about when officers care too much about their work. aka: Principle of Double Effect
1. Lying & Deception
2. Accepting gratuites & Corruption
3. Improper use of force
4. Verbal & Psychological abuse
5. Violations of civil rights
6. Improper sexual relationships
6 inappropriate police behaviors:
1. Acceptable Lying
2. Deviant Lying
2 types of lying:
1. offering illegal action as part of a larger socially acceptable and legal goal.
2. disguising illegal action so suspect doesn’t know action is illegal
3. morally weakening suspect so he voluntarily becomes involved – ie: provide liquor, drugs
Gary Marx identified 3 situations police may use trickery:
When an idea of a crime originates with police rather than the suspect and police facilitate the commission.
1. lying that serves a legitimate purpose
2. lying that conceals / promotes crimes or illegitimate ends
2 types of deviant lying:
Lying that serves legitimate goals
Occurs when officers lie to secure a conviction, obtain search warrants, or conceal police omission during investigation.
Lying to conceal police criminality
An egregious form of police deception. ie: Lying to conceal excess force
1. Slippery slope argument
2. It’s wrong since police are receiving rewards for service they are obligated to provide
2 basic arguments against accepting gratuities:
The role of the Giver & The role of the Receiver
Under the Model of Circumstantial Corruptibility the exchange of a gift is influenced by 2 elements:
The Giver can be:
The Receiver can be:
1. Physical abuse / excessive force
2. Verbal & psychological abuse
3. Legal abuse & violations of civil rights
3 types of abuse of authority:
1. Compliant (no resistance)
2. Passive resistance
3. Aggressive resistance
4. Dynamic resistance
4 types of suspects in relation to the Dynamic Resistance Response Model:
1. Officers believed that there were no effective mid-range alternatives
2. Split Second Syndrome
Two issues that appear to be consistent as justification with deadly force:
1. No two shootings are alike
2. Due to stress & time it should be expected officers will make mistakes
3. An evaluation of the officers decision making should be based on perceived exigencies
The Split Second Syndrome makes 3 assumptions:
Gunfire that spreads among officers who believe they or their colleges are facing a threat
Most common method of verbal abuse:
1. a source of power to control
2. a weapon to degrade / insult
3. a method of alienating others
4. a method of labeling others
5. a way of defying authority
Profanity is used for a variety of reasons:
1. Non-sexual contacts that are sexually motivated
2. Voyeuristic contacts
3. Contacts with crime victims
4. Contacts with offenders
5. Contacts with juvenile offenders
6. Sexual shakedowns
7. Citizen-initiated sexual contacts
7 types of improper sexual relationships identified by Sapp:
1. Sufficiently sever to create a hostile work environment
2. Harrassing conduct results in change of employement status or benefits
Unwelcome verbal or physical conduct based on race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age (40+), disability, sexual orientation, retaliation – constitues harrassments when:
Hostile Work Environment
Unwelcomed comments / conduct based on legally protected characteristics that unreasonably interferes with an employees work performance or creates an offensive work environment
An employee must initiate an EEO complaint within ____ days of the incident.
1. Direct Liablilty (their actions)
2. Vicarious Liability (subordinates actions)
Supervisors may incur liability in 2 ways:
1. Authorizing the act
2. Present when the act took place and failed to correct
3. Failed to admonish or take corrective action for past act
Supervisors may incur direct liability by:
1. Simple negligence (fail to provide due care)
2. Gross negligence (deliberate indifference to life & property)
2 types of negligence:
Courts generally require __________on behalf of supervisors
1. Negligent assignment
2. Negligent failure to supervise
3. Negligent failure to direct
4. Negligent entrustment
5. Negligent failure to investigate / discipline
5 areas supervisors have been found liable:
persons in custody & safe facilities
failure to protect
Other areas of potential liability for supervisors include:
Scott v. Harris
2007 USSC ruled that a police officers attempt to terminate a dangerous high speed pursuit that threatens the lives of innocent bystanders does not violate the 4th Amendment, even if it places the fleeing motorist at risk of serious injury or death.
National Treasury Employee Union v. Von Raab
1989 USSC ruled drug testing permissible even if there is no indication of drug problem.
1. Testing when officers transfer in/out of special units
2. All officers subject to random testing
2 basic prevelant policies concerning drug testing:
1. Officer misconduct
2. Violations of policy
2 principal areas involving discipline:
1. internal police review – police board only
2. auditor format – civilian board reviews police board
3. citizen inclusive board – citizen board has jurisdication
4. monitor form – citizen board oversees & has authority to intervene / review
4 forms of complaint investigation:
1. Personnel complaints
2. Internal complaints
3. External complaints
3 origins of complaints:
1. Primary source – victim, witness
2. Secondary source – outcry, counselor
3. Anonymous source – unknown who
3 types of external complaints:
2 types of complaints:
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