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POLS 1100 Chapter 15

mass media
the entire array of organizations through which information is collected and disseminated to the general public
news media
media providing the public with new information about subjects of public interest
yellow journalism
a form of newspaper publishing in vogue in the late nineteenth century that featured pictures, comics, color, and sensationalized news coverage
muckraking
a form of journalism, in vogue in the early twentieth century, devoted to exposing misconduct by government, business, and individual politicians
narrowcasting
targeting media programming at specific populations within society
citizen journalists
ordinary individuals who collect, report, and analyze news content
on the record
information provided to a journalist that can be released and attributed by name to the source
off the record
information provided to a journalist that will not be released to the public
on background
information provided to a journalist that will not be attributed to a named source
deep background
information provided to a journalist that will not be attributed to any source
content regulations
limitations on the substance of the mass media
equal time rule
the rule that requires broadcast stations to sell air time equally to all candidates in a political campaign if they choose to sell it to any
press release
a document offering an official comment or position
press briefing
a relatively restricted session between a press secretary or aide and the press
press conference
an unrestricted session between an elected official and the press
media effects
the influence of news sources on public opinion
agenda setting
the process of forming the list of issues to be addressed by government
framing
the process by which a news organization defines a political issue and consequently affects opinion about the issue
Thomas Jefferson wrote a letter in which he
said he would prefer newspapers without government than a government without newspapers
One of the concerns about the decline of newspapers is
the potential demise of objectivity in the news, citizens’ knowledge of political events will suffer, fear about the validity of other sources of news
The media is also known as the
fourth estate
Partisan newspapers gave way to
the penny press
Modern tabloids are most similar to
yellow journalism
Most people get their information about politics from
television
Why is C-Span beneficial to democratic government in the United States?
C-Span makes members of Congress even more accountable to citizens.
A recent study conducted by the Anneberg Public Policy Center found that
those who watch the Daily Show regularly know more about current events than non-viewers
What is a potential danger of television shows such as The Colbert Report and The Daily Show?
The shows are meant for entertainment and social commentary, not as a substitute for news.
The internet
had its roots in the ARAPANET project
Suppose you are a politician who wants to disseminate a brief statement to reach the public at large, including news networks. Which of the following is the quickest, easiest, and most effective way to receive a near-instant response?
Post a tweet on Twitter.
Narrowcasting has resulted in
polarization of public opinion
Democrats’ major news source is
MSNBC
Imagine you are a journalist covering a scandal that may destroy a member of Congress. You obtain your information from a source as the Department of Justice. In your story, you make no reference to the source’s name or the Department of Justice, referring instead to her as an “unnamed source.” The source is
on deep background
The Supreme Court ruled that government could not prevent publication of the Pentagon Papers by the New York Times in a case known as
New York Times v. US
In the White House Press Room, ____ sit(s) closer to the front than the other members of the media.
major newspapers
The first president to have a press secretary was
Herbert Hoover
Which of the following is a media effect?
agenda setting
In 2009, NBC Nightly News anchor Brian Williams announced on the air that the conflict in Afghanistan, though not a declared war, was going to be referred to as such during the NBC broadcasts. This is a prime example of
framing
How do some analysts explain the media inattention to racial and ethnic minorities, the poor and those who are critical of government and business?
the typical journalist is white, male, and affluent, there is a pervasive bias toward getting a good story in journalism
The news media are
representative of a broad spectrum of opinions
The Progressive movement brought with it the dawn of ____, a form of newspaper publishing concerned with reforming government and business conduct.
muckraking
Television and radio are regulated by the federal government because
the airwaves are public property
The lion’s share of the media’s coverage of Congress is concentrated on
the leadership of both houses
Of the three branches of government, which of the following is the least media friendly?
judicial

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