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Polsci Final

T/F By 2006, all fifty states had established referendums.
False
What percentage of eligible voters participated in the 2008 presidential election?
62%
What issue led to the demise of the Whig Party?
Slavery
Which of the following is the best description of a political party?
an organization that tries to influence the government by getting its members elected to office
Which group was not a part of the New Deal coalition?
business leaders
Compared with Western Europe, the United States has a(n) ______ turnout in elections.
lower
The program of Reconstruction after the Civil War was led by the ______ Party.
Republican
The first party system was characterized by conflict between the ______ and the ______.
Federalists; Jeffersonian Republicans
From 1896 to 1932, the ______ Party was the nation’s majority party.
Republican
Who is the incumbent?
the current officeholder, running for re-election
Which of the following was not a date of an electoral realignment?
1994
What were the two major parties in the United States during the 1830s and 1840s?
the Democrats and the Whigs
Which of the following occurs when one party becomes dominant after replacing another party that has dominated national politics for a lengthy period of time?
an electoral realignment
The Populist Party appealed to which of the following groups?
western mining interests, small farmers, and urban workers
T/F The electoral college cannot elect any candidate who has not also won the popular vote.
False
Which of the following transpires when one party controls the presidency while another party controls one or both houses of Congress?
a divided government
In order for a political party to select a candidate to run in the general election, it holds a
primary election
The term turnout describes the number of people who
actually vote
An individual’s psychological attachment to one party or another is called a party
identification
What is a referendum?
the practice of voting directly for proposed laws
The United States began its tradition of the ______ during the eighteenth century.
two-party system
Third parties in the United States typically represent
social and economic interests that are disregarded by the two major parties for certain reasons.
______ are nonprofit independent groups that receive and distribute funds to influence the nomination, election, and defeat of a candidate.
527 committees
Private groups that raise and distribute funds for election campaigns are called
political action committees
One important cause of the United States’ two-party system is
single-member electoral districts
Why is it important for interest groups to offer selective benefits?
It is necessary to limit the extent of the free-rider problem.
The best description of the ideal of pluralism is that
interests should be free to compete with each other for governmental influence
What distinguishes lobbying from other strategies of influence?
Lobbyists try to exert pressure directly on government officials themselves.
When membership in an organization allows for a reduction in the price of museum tickets, it is called a
material benefit
When paid staff conduct most of the daily business of a group, that group is best described as a
staff organization
Approximately how many members does AARP have?
36,000,000
Over the last forty years, the number and scale of interest groups at the national level has
dramatically increased
he Christian Coalition is best described as a(n) ______ group
ideological
Which of the following groups has had the greatest success with a strategy of litigation?
the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
The solidary benefits of interest groups include
friendship and consciousness-raising
The free-rider problem occurs because
the benefits of a group’s actions are broadly available and cannot be denied to nonmembers.
Interest groups are concerned with the ______ of government, while political parties are concerned with the ______ of government.
policies; personnel
The National League of Cities is a good example of
a public-sector interest group.
By 2007, there were approximately ______ PACs in the United States.
5,000
How can interest groups use litigation as a strategy of influence?
filing amicus curiae briefs, financing lawsuits, and bringing a suit on behalf of the group
A ______ is the best example of an informational benefit provided by many interest groups.
newsletter
The Teamsters and the AFL-CIO are examples of what kind of interest group?
a labor group
Which of the following Supreme Court cases illustrates the use of litigation by an interest group?
Webster v. Reproductive Health Services
When interest groups take out advertisements and hold marches, these are examples of
mobilizing public opinion.
Which of the following is not a key organizational component of interest groups?
newsletter and website
What is the most important and beneficial resource that lobbyists provide government officials?
information
What is the primary function of a political action committee?
to raise and distribute money to election campaigns
An iron triangle is made up of an alliance between
a legislative committee, an interest group, and an executive agency
The increased number and importance of interest groups
is a response to an increase in the size and activity of government
What is the primary variable for predicting the likelihood of joining an interest group?
having a higher income and education
A bicameral legislature is one that has
two chambers or houses
The idea of ______ identifies the best representative as the one who shares a similar racial, ethnic, religious, or occupational background with those he or she represents.
sociological representation
How long is the term of office for a U.S. Senator?
six years
Which idea of representation says that a legislator should be viewed as someone whom voters hire to represent their interests?
agency representation
Constituency service is so important that
party leaders will not ask any member to vote in a way that conflicts with the interests or opinions of the member’s districts.
One reason why redistricting is controversial is because
computer technologies allow legislatures to know statistically what kinds of people live where and this can be used to give one party an advantage over the other.
The powers and resources available to government officials that are used to favor supporters are called
patronage
Pork-barrel legislation
deals with specific projects and their location within a particular congressional district.
In the House of Representatives, the majority leader
is subordinate to the Speaker of the House
Who is the Speaker of the House?
The elected leader of the majority party in the House is the Speaker
In general, members of the House seek committee assignments that will
allow them to influence decisions that are of special importance to voters in their districts
The jurisdiction of standing committees
is defined by the subject matter of legislation, which often parallels the major cabinet departments or agencies
Congressional leaders form ______ committees when they want to take up an issue that falls between the jurisdiction of existing committees, to highlight an issue, or to investigate a particular problem.
select
Conference committees are
temporary, involve members from both houses of Congress, and are charged with reaching a compromise on legislation once it has been passed by both the House and the Senate
Cloture is
the process by which three-fifths of the Senate can end a filibuster
A filibuster allows members of the Senate to
prevent a vote on a bill by speaking continuously on the floor.
When the House and the Senate coordinate two versions of the same bill, they will often use a ______ to obtain a single unified bill.
conference committee
Congress adjourns during a ten-day period after presenting the president with a bill, and the president takes no action; this is known as a
pocket veto
Which of the following is not an important influence on the legislative agenda of Congress?
the federal courts
When two members of Congress who share no common interests agree to support each other’s bills, the practice is called
logrolling
The role the House of Representatives plays in impeachments can best be compared with that of a
grand jury
Term Limits are in place for
The California Legislature
The California Legislature is
Bicameral with both houses based on population
T/F The power to filibuster is not available in the California State Senate
True
T/F Each California Assemblymember and State Senator represent about 250,000 people in their respective districts.
False
An informal group of advisers to the president is often called the
Kitchen Cabinet
T/F The framers were concerned that a directly elected president would become too powerful.
True
Which office manages elections in the state?
Secretary of State
What is required for Congress to override a presidential veto?
two-thirds of both houses of Congress
In order to get around the need for Senate approval of treaties, many contemporary presidents have made us of ______ in foreign affairs.
executive agreements
T/F The more than 200,000 state employees are to a large degree are independent of politics.
True
When the president infers powers from the “rights, duties, and obligations” of the presidency, these are called
inherent powers
Which of the following has caused an increase in the president’s delegated powers?
the increasing scope and complexity of legislation
The president’s delegated powers come from
Congress
Why is the president’s State of the Union address important?
It is an opportunity for the president to set the legislative agenda by initiating proposals and directing public attention to the executive’s goals.
The president must share foreign policy powers with
Congress
A signing statement is
an announcement the president makes about his interpretation of a congressional enactment he is signing into law.
What is the primary constitutional task of the vice president, besides succeeding the president in case of death, resignation, or incapacitation?
to cast tie-breaking votes in the Senate
What is the general tendency of a president’s popularity?
Presidents usually start out popular and decline over the next four years.
What did the framers mean to accomplish by indirect election of the president?
to make the president responsible to state and national legislatures
The president’s position as head of state is defined in the Constitution by all of the following powers except
partisan
The president’s power to set the debate concerning public policy in Congress is called
a legislative initiative
According to the text, what are the three most common ways for a president to expand his base of power?
party support, popular mobilization, and administrative control
The Office of Management and Budget and the Council of Economic Advisers are both parts of
the Executive Office of the President
The groups of advisers and analysts to the president are collectively called the
White House staff
Two distinct powers the Governor has that the President does not are
line item veto and budget preparation
The president has the power to appoint which of the following positions?
cabinet secretaries
The power to declare war is given to whom under the Constitution?
both houses of Congress
______ powers are the most common form of constitutional powers possessed by the president.
Delegated
The term “invisible govenor” refers to
The lack of media coverage
What is the main function of the chief justice of the Supreme Court?
The chief justice presides over the Court’s public sessions and private conferences.
Prior cases whose principles are used by judges to decide current cases are called
precedents
Which of the following best describes the role of the solicitor general?
the lawyer who represents the United States before the Supreme Court in cases where the federal government is a party
The doctrine of ______ requires courts to follow authoritative prior decisions when ruling on a case.
stare decisis
In which type of case does the Supreme Court have original jurisdiction?
any case involving an ambassador
T/F The California State Supreme Court is required to hear all cases involving the death penalty
True
How many justices currently serve on the Supreme Court?
nine
Through the exercise of ______, the Supreme Court has held actions or laws of the executive and legislative branches unconstitutional.
judicial review
The size of the U.S. Supreme Court is set by
Congress
The written document in which attorneys explain why the court should rule in favor of their client is called a(n)
brief
Each year, the Supreme Court receives about ______ appeals and hears about ______ of them in full court.
10,000; 80
The jurisdiction of each federal court is derived from
the Constitution and federal law
Senatorial courtesy describes the practice of
senators from a president’s party approving of a judicial nominee from their home state.
In what type of law is the government always the plaintiff?
criminal law
A person, agency, or interest group not directly a party to a case but with an interest in its outcome may file a(n) ______ brief.
amicus curiae
In most circumstances, a supreme court is best described as a(n) ______ court.
appellate
Original jurisdiction refers to
the court with the authority to hear a case first.
Trial courts in California’s state court system are known as
superior courts
In recent years, federal court appointments have
been characterized by intense partisan and ideological efforts to support or defeat the candidate.
Cases between two or more states are originally heard by
The Supreme Court
Which of the following is NOT a means of removal for California state judges
gubernatorial recall
When justices agree with the ruling of a court majority but not all of its reasoning, they may often write a(n)
concurrence
Activist judges believe that the courts should
go beyond the words of a constitution or statute to consider the broader societal implications of its decisions
If a private individual brought a suit against a corporation for breaking a contract, what kind of law would this involve?
civil
A writ of habeas corpus declares that
the government must show a legal cause for holding someone in detention.

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