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Pretests Chapter 12

The portion of the federal budget that is spent on previously enacted programs, such as Social Security, that the president and Congress are unwilling to cut, is called__.
uncontrollable spending
A reason the operations of government differ from those of private business is that__.
the government’s goal is the public good, whereas one of the primary goals of a business is to make a profit
Companies that are not under the direct jurisdiction of the federal government are part of the__.
private sector
Why would federal agencies require federal employees to fill out detailed paperwork on the work they have completed during the day?
It keeps people accountable for the work they do.
Congress can hold the bureaucracy accountable through__.
investigating bureaucratic activities
Which independent regulatory commission is charged with regulating stock markets?
Securities Product Safety Commission
There are several types of federal employees. A member of the cabinet is considered a__.
presidential appointee
The executive branch is headed by the president and is composed of independent agencies, __, and __.
regulatory commissions; government agencies
After a law is passed and regulations are made and implemented, what is the final step in making public policy?
Running the program
What is the primary source of federal revenues?
Income taxes
Which agency in the federal bureaucracy established a color-coded security system that assesses the likelihood of another terrorist attack?
Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
The 15 __employ more than 70 percent of all federal civil servants and spend 93 percent of all federal dollars.
cabinet departments
If you want a permanent federal position, you will have to take a civil service exam. The use of civil service exams as a means of selecting the best employee to perform a federal job is an example of the__.
merit system
The president’s power to choose his own cabinet is limited by the fact that members of the cabinet must__.
be confirmed by a majority in the Senate
__committees can check a bureaucracy’s power by confirming or rejecting nominees in top bureaucratic positions.
Congressional
Which of the following was one of the expectations of the Framers regarding the bureaucracy?
Federal departments and agencies would be relatively small.
Legislative or executive review of a particular government program or organization is called__.
oversight
In order to qualify for federal student aid funding, students and their families must answer as many as 153 questions on the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), many of which have no effect on their student aid packages. Overly complicated government paperwork and documentation requirements of this sort are often referred to as__.
red tape
Which of the following statements describes the kind of direction that Congress gives federal agencies when passing a new law?
Congress gives agencies administrative discretion in implementing the law.
The federal regulations written by executive branch departments and agencies are designed to do what?
Convert laws into actions
The president of the debate club must decide what to do with the $200 left in the club’s budget at the end of the semester. What action would maximize the amount of funding the club will receive from the student government the following year?
Spend the $200 to deplete the entire budget.
An example of a government corporation is__.
Amtrak
Which of the following is an example of how the size and responsiveness of the federal bureaucracy led to a negative outcome?
The federal government’s response to Hurricane Katrina
Which department is a regulatory commission that monitors television and radio?
Federal Communications Commission
Which bureaucratic principle is evident when the resident director of a dormitory tells all the resident assistants to drop what they are doing and clean up the quad before a group of prospective students arrives on campus?
Hierarchy, because lower-level employees are subject to control and direction by higher-level employees
__makes small-scale adjustments in an existing program.
Incremental policy
The attorney general of the United States is the head of the__.
Department of Justice
The basis for the federal bureaucracy can be found__.
in Articles I and II of the US Constitution
The 15 major administrative units of the executive branch that have responsibility for broad areas of government operations are called__.
—government corporations
—independent executive agencies
—independent regulatory commissions
In the context of the federal bureaucracy, the patronage system refers to a system of__.
—filling the bureaucracy based on criteria of professional qualifications
—establishing a system of congressional oversight through the possibility of impeachment
—filling the bureaucracy based on the results of direct popular election for department heads
—requiring congressional approval for presidential appointees
The most recently formed department in the federal bureaucracy is the Department of__.
—Health and Human Services
—Veterans Affairs
—Public Affairs
The president can reorganize the bureaucracy through__ approval of the budget for federal agencies.
—the president’s
The rationale for the civil service rests on the__.
desire to create a nonpartisan government service, and promotion on the basis of merit
The administration hoped that the creation of the Department of Homeland Security in 2002 would help overcome problems of __ involved in providing for security.
fragmentation
The spoils system was perhaps more overt than at any other time in the history of the U.S. federal government under the administration of__.
Andrew Jackson
The Hatch Act (1939) made it illegal to fire federal employees for__ reasons.
political
Interest groups monitor agencies that__.
serve or regulate their own members
The Federal Reserve Board is an example of a(n)__.
independent regulatory commission
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) broadcast standards and rules issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to make short selling of stocks illegal are examples of__.
regulations
Which system of appointment allowed political parties to reward their supporters by giving them government jobs?
—Partisan system
—Merit System
__typically have narrow responsibilities for a specific policy issue (such as the environment) not covered by one of the federal departments.
Independent agencies
An iron triangle consists of a federal department or agency, a set of loyal interest groups, and__.
a House and/or Senate committee
By the mid-2000s, about__ employees worked indirectly for the bureaucracy under contracts to private firms such as Lockheed Martin and Boeing.
—7,600
—760,000
The Administrative Procedures Act requires that agencies considering a new rule or policy give public notice in the Federal Register and__ before adopting the new measures.
—bring the measure before a vote of the House of Representatives
Federal courts do not usually involve themselves in the__ of bureaucracies.
policy decisions
Interest groups, scholars, and other experts that communicate about, debate, and interact regarding issues of interest, and thus influence public policy when the legislature acts on these issues, are commonly referred to as a(n)__.
issue network
While iron triangles can exist for decades, __ usually cooperate for a specific cause and then disband.
issue networks
The power to grant or withhold budget requests of agencies may be one of__ most potent weapons in controlling the bureaucracy.
the House of Representatives’
Which of the following is an example of a redistributive policy?
—Funding for air traffic control
The independent agency that oversees and protects the rights of federal employees is the__.
Merit Systems Protection Board
The __, which is responsible for regulating the supply of money, is commonly referred to as the Fed.
Federal Reserve System
Most bureaucrats have some leeway in their ability to make choices regarding the best way to implement congressional intentions through administrative__.
discretion
Most government departments are headed by political appointees known as__.
secretaries
The president can reorganize the bureaucracy through __approval of the budget for federal agencies.
Congress’s
The Veteran’s Administration is an example of a(n)__.
independent agency
__committees can keep power in check in a bureaucracy by confirming or rejecting nominees in top bureaucratic positions.
Congressional
The president has the power to hold agencies accountable through__.
the appointment and removal of agency heads
__is the act of converting a policy into action.
Implementation
Most regulatory agencies adopt specific __to carry out a policy based on what they believe was the intended purpose of the specific policy at hand.
guidlines
The parts of the federal bureaucracy with responsibility for different sectors of the economy, and making and enforcing rules designed to protect the public interest, are the__.
idenpendent regulatory commissions
When a victorious president fires current executive branch employees and hires loyalists instead, this is known as__.
the spoils system
Regulations and population have accounted for the __of federal bureaucracy in the United States over time.
growth
The many quasi-judicial processes within the bureaucracy are subject to oversight through appeals to the__.
Congress
When a public citizen requests records from the proceedings of a government agency like the Farm Credit Administration, this is a use of__.
the Freedom of Information Act
Although the president and Congress have a significant role in the way the bureaucracy is run,__ also have a role in judging on laws and agency reviews.
—state legislators
The fact that each government agency specializes in its own type of specific work is an example of what feature of bureaucracy?
—Red tape
—Chain of command
—Regulation
The president can reorganize the bureaucracy through__ approval of the budget for federal agencies
Congress’s
Since 1962, federal civilian employees have had the right to__.
form unions
Some people use the term __to refer to a policy that takes away benefits or money from one group to give to another.
—policy agendas
—distributive policy
—iron triangles
Which of the following statements about government regulation in America is accurate?
—The Supreme Court case of Raich v. Gonzales in 1877 first upheld the federal governments right to regulate business.
—The Federal Communications Commission was the first independent regulatory agency.
Independent agencies are called this because__.
—their responsibilities are independent of the overall goal of the bureaucracy
—they rely on public sentiment to make decisions for individuals
In the context of government, the term bureaucracy generally refers to__.
departments and agencies in the executive branch
The merit system uses entrance exams and promotional ratings to produce administrative jobs, which is an example of the fair hiring practices for those under__.
the civil service system
In the context of the federal government, government corporations__.
have independent boards and are expected to be run like private companies

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