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Principles and Practice of Sport Management Ch. 1-5

first games played by native americans
Cincinnati red stockings
first pro MLB team
Boston, Chicago, Cincinnati, Hartford, Louisville, New York, Philadelphia, and St. Louis
inital members of MLB
William Hulbert
took over management of national league of pro baseball players
1966 University of Ohio (Mason and O’Malley’s idea)
where and when did sport management first become an academic program
Defining organizational goals and determining the appropriate means by which to achieve these desired goals
putting plans into action
determines what types of jobs need to be performed and who will be responsible foe doing them
Directing activities of employees as he or she attempts to accomplish organizational goals
Measuring and ensuring progress toward organizational objectives
Scientific management and human relations movement
2 management theories
scientific management
workers should be doing the job the one best way and can be motivated to do this by economic rewards
human relations
partnership, cooperation, feeling of worth encourages better work and causes more satisfaction
social factors in work place are important
hard salary cap
Negotiated between union and league
under no circumstances can a team spend more than the salary cap that was agreed upon for the season (NHL)
soft salary cap
a salary cap amount which may be exceeded in limited circumstances (NBA)
sport broadcasting
coverage of sports as a television program, on radio and other broadcasting media
the 4 p’s
what else is the marketing mix known by
marketing mix
Controllable variables that the company puts together to satisfy a target group
product (actual event/experience), price (depends on value or perceived value), place (preselling and exceptional locations), promotion (advertising, personal selling, publicity and sales promotion)
4 p’s
legal monopoly
monopoly that is protected by law from competition
A word, name, or symbol used by a manufacturer or merchant to identify and distinguish its goods from those manufactured and sold by others
reserve system
when a player is obligated to a team forever
ambush marketing
Capitalizing on the goodwill associated with an event without becoming an official sponsor
relationship marketing
•Aids in fostering identification with sports teams
•Begins with the customer and encourages integration of the customer into the company
•Builds relationships through communication, satisfaction, and service
•Examples: loyal fan gift rewards, special access to players, and special access to information
service quality
•Ability to provide consistent high-quality service is becoming a source of competitive advantage for firms.
fan identification
•The personal commitment and emotional involvement customers have with a sport organization
•Enhanced long-term loyalty within sports fans
Sponsorship opportunities, ability to tap into the strong emotional connection between a fan and his or her sport team
•Customer retention activities for the customer after purchase.
•Many choices are available to customers (e.g., in the New York area).
•Best plan for retention is to ensure that the fans become raving fans.
amount of money an organization borrows
owner’s equity
amount of their own money owners have invested in the firm
financial outflows
anything an organization owns that can be used to generate future revenues
competitive balance
Large-market teams being more likely to make the playoffs
Large-market teams get more revenue and can do more and become better
uncertainty of outcome
Consumers of a spectator sport seek to be entertained by the game itself
The more uncertainty, the more entertainment
agent principle relationship
An arrangement in which one entity legally appoints another to act on its behalf. In a principal-agent relationship, the agent acts on behalf of the principal and should not have a conflict of interest in carrying out the act.
valid contract
-Offer and acceptance (mutual assent)
-Consideration (value)
-Legality (subject matter legal and not against public policy)
standard player contract
It is a guideline in regards to the type of hotel, per diem and salary.
A contract for individual player, negotiated by player’s agent, builds off of collective bargaining agreement
collective bargaining agreement
Contract agreed to by the union and the owners for all provisions related to hours, wages, and terms and conditions of employment
1972 Boston College Law School
year and school where sport law became a big deal
American Disabilities Act
•Prohibits employment discrimination on the basis of disability
Antitrust law
Promote competition in the free market; break up business trusts and monopolies and prohibit anticompetitive activity by businesses
Title IX
•Comprehensive statute aimed at eliminating sex discrimination in educational institutions that receive federal funding
Roone Arledge
president of ABC sports
Bill Veeck
Team must provide reasons other than the game itself for people to attend and support the franchise.
• 1.Creating the greatest joy for the greatest number of people
• 2.Pleasurable attending experience
• 3.Create conversation

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