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Principles of Management 371 Chapter 1

Why does innovative Management matter?
•Innovations in products, services, management systems, productions, processes, corporate balies and other aspects of the organization are what keeps companies:
-Growing
-Changing
-Thriving

•Innovation is the new imperative, and critical in todays turbulent world
•Organizations cannot survive long-term without innovation
•Companies like Facebook are always investing in new ideas
•Facebook’s success can be attributed to the effectiveness of its innovative managers

*INNOVATION SHOULD BE A PART OF PRODUCTS, PROCESSES, PEOPLE, AND VALUES*

Management
•Is the attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner through:
-Planning
-Organizing
-Leading
-Controlling (Part 1)

and

The attainment of organizational foals in effective and efficient manner (Part 2)

•Managers get things done by coordinating and motivating other peoples
•Managers get things done through the organization
•Create right systems and environments
•Organizations need good managers

*Figure 1.1* pg 6

What do Managers do?

*1. Set Objectives*
•Establish goals for the group and decided what must be done to achieve them

*2. Organize*
• Divide work into manageable activities and select people to accomplish tasks

*3. Motivate and Communicate*
•Create teamwork via, decisions on pay, promotions, etc, and through communication

*4. Measure*
•Set targets and standards; appraise performance

*5. Develop People*
• Recognize the value of employees and develop this critical organizational asset

*Figure 1.2* pg 7
The Process of Management
The 4 Management Functions
•Managers perform a wide variety of activities that fall within 4 primary management functions:

1.Planning
2.Organizing
3.Leading
4. Controlling

**Need to be able to define, place in order and identify each function

The 4 Management Functions: Planning
•Identifying/defining goals for future organizational performance and and deciding on the tasks and use of resources needed to attain them.

•In other words, Managerial Planning defines where the organization wants to be in the future, and how to get there.

•Set goals, and ways to attain them

•Until you *PLAN* how your are going to do something- it’s useless

•FIRST STEP

The 4 Management Functions: Organizing
•Involves assigning tasks, grouping tasks into departments, delegating authority, and allocating resources across the organization / department

•Assign responsibility for task accomplishment

The 4 Management Functions: Leading
•The use of influence to motivate employees to achieve organizational goals.

•Leading means creating a shared cultural and values, communicating goals to people throughout the organization and infusing employees with the desire to perform at Top Level

The 4 Management Functions: Controlling
•Monitoring employees activities activities, determining whether the organization is on target towards its goals, and making corrections as necessary.

•Managers must ensure that the organization is moving towards its goal

•One trend is recent years id for companies to place less emphasis on top-down control and more emphasis on training employees to monitor and correct themselves.
-regardless ultimately it is the managers responsibility

Organization:
•Is a society entity that is goal directed and deliberately structured

•Social Entity- bring made up of two or more people
•Goal Directed- designed to achieve some outcome, such as make a profit, win pay increases for members, meet spiritual needs, or provide social satisfaction.
•Deliberately Structured- the tasks are divided and responsibility for their performance is assigned to organizational members.

**This Definition applies to all organizations**

Organizational *Effectiveness*
•The degree to which the organization achieves a stated goal, or succeeds in accomplishing what it tries to do
•following a plan to detail

*Degree to which you accomplish a Task*

Organizational *Efficiency*
•Refers to the amount of resources used to achieve an organizational goal
•It is based on how much raw material, money, and people are necessary for producing a given volume of output.
•Can be calculated as the amount of resources used to produce a product or service.

*The amount of resources you use to accomplish a task*

Effectiveness VS Efficiency
*I can’t be efficient, until I am effective*

•Effective- Following a plan to detail
•Efficient- multitasking- not paying full attention to detail….but… got the job done

**Can never be efficient first**

Question:

Degree to which you accomplish a task?

• Effective
Question:

Which is more important, effectiveness or efficiency?

•Effectiveness
3 Types of Management Skills:
•The degree of the skills may vary, but all managers must possess these skills

1. Conceptual Skills
2. Human Skills
3. Technical Skills

•The application of management skills chance as managers move up the hierarchy

*Figure 1.3* Pg 11
Relationship of Skills to Management level

**Study

*Should be able to define and understand the relationship between management level and the amount of these skills a manager needs

Types of Management Skills: Conceptual Skills
• The cognitive ability to see the organization as a whole and the relationship among its parts, and how it fits into the industry, community, broader business and social environment

•Understanding how everything needs to come together to complete a task
Iron Standing

•The ability to *Think Strategically* and identify, evaluate and solve complex problems.

•Important trait for all managers particularly top level managers.

**HIGH PAY*

Types of Management Skills: Human Skills
•The managers ability to work with and through other people and to work effectively as a group member

•Demonstrated in the way a manger relates to other people, including the ability to motivate, facilitate, coordinate, lead, communicate, and resolve conflicts

•Where how/to manage people and do a task
•Organizations usually loose good people due to front-line bosses who fail to show respect and concern for employees
•Increasingly important for managers of all levels

•Mid-level skills

Types of Management Skills: Technical Skills
•The understanding of and proficiency in the performance of specific tasks

•Includes mastery of the methods, techniques, and equipment involved in specific functions like engineering, manufacturing, finance.

•Specialized knowledge, analytically ability and the competent use of tools and techniques to solve problems in that specific discipline

•Particularly important at lower organizational levels
•Many ppl get promoted to their first management job due to excellent technical skills

•Hands on skills
•Unique/Rare = more money $$
•Common skills = a lower pay
•Technical skills are becoming more rare ex- working on cars

Scale Ability
•How quickly one can scale up in a company

•Company doing well= More scale-ability

*Figure 1.4* Pg 12
Why Managers Fail
Why Managers Fail
1. Ineffective Communication Skills and Practices 81%
2. Poor Relationships/ Interpersonal skills 78%

Interview EX.
•Evaluate how/who will/wont fit in
•how good one gets along with others
EX. Shopping
-Exclude sizes, styles, colors- just evaluate the person

1st-2nd interviews should focus on Evaluating that the interviewer has
•good personal skills
•gets along with other

– 1-1 1/2 yrs with a company- employers are looking for people playing nice together

*Figure 1.5* pg 14
Management Levels in the Organizational Hierarchy

**Study

Management types: Verticle
•Top Managers
•Middle Managers
•First-line Managers
Vertical Management Type: Top Managers
•Are the top of the hierarchy, and are responsible for the entire organization
•Titles such as- President, chairperson, EXC. director, CEO, Vice president
Vertical Management Type: Middle Managers
•Work at middle levels of the organization, and are responsible for business units, and major departments
•Titles such as, department head, division head, manager of quality control, director or research lab
•responsible for implementing the overall strategies and policies defined by top managers
•generally concerned with near future, rather than long-range planning

EX. Project Managers

Vertical Management Type: Project Manager
•Responsible for a temporary work project that invilves the participation of people from various functions and levels of the organization-sometimes even outside
Vertical Management Type: First-line Managers
•Are directly responsible for the production of goods and services
•They are the first or second level management
•Titles such as- Supervisor, line manager, section chief, and office manager
•primary concern is the application of rules and procedures to achieve efficient production provide technical assistance, and motivate subordinates

•*Technical*

Management Types: Horizontal
•Functional Managers
•General Managers
Horizontal Management Type: Functional Managers
•Responsible for departments that preform single function tasks / specific tasks – and have employees with similar training and skills

•Departments include: Advertising, sales, finance, HR manufacturing and accounting
-Line Managers- responsible for the manufacturing and marketing departments that make or sell the product of service
-Staff Managers- in charge of departments such as finance, and human resources that support line departments

Horizontal Management Type: General Managers
•Are responsible for several departments that perform different functions
•Widerange
Making the Leap: Becoming a New Manager
•Organizations often promote star performers to management
• Becoming a manager is a transitions
-Move from being a DOER to a COORDINATOR
•Many new managers expect more freedom to make changes’
•Successful managers build teams and networks
•Many make the transition “Trial by Fire”
*Figure 1.6* pg a8
Making the Leap from Ind. Performer to Manger
Manager Category and roles (3): Informational
•Describe the activities used to maintain and develop an information network.
•These roles revolve around communication and the distribution of information both verbal and written

*3 Roles:*
• *Monitor* – Seek and receive information, scan periodicals, and reports, maintain personal contacts.
• *Disseminator* – Forward information to other organization members; send memos and reports, make phone calls
•*Spokesperson* – Transmit information to outsiders through speeches, reports, memos.

Manger Categories (3)
•Informational
•Interpersonal
•Decisional

**A good manager must know they have the support and acceptance from the crew

Manager Category and roles (3): Interpersonal
•Pertain to relationships with others and are related to the human skills.
These roles revolve around leading, acting as a liaison, and handling ceremonial and symbolic activities.

*3 Roles*
•*Figurehead*- Perform ceremonial and symbolic duties such as greeting visitors, singing legal documents
•*Leader*- Direct and motivate subordinates; train, counsel, and communicate with subordinates
•*Liaison*- Maintain information links both inside and outside organization; use email, phone calls, meetings

Question

What are several __________ of each role?

Manager Category and roles (4): Decisional
•Pertain to those events about which the manager must make a choice and take actions.
•These roles require conceptual and human skills, and revolve around the decisions a manager must make.

*4 Roles*
•*Entrepreneur*- Indicate improvement projects; identify new ideas, delegate idea responsibility to others
•*Disturbance Handler*- Take corrective action during disputes or crises; resolve conflicts among subordinates; adapt to environmental crises
•*Resource Allocator*- Decide who gets resources; schedule budget, set priorities
•*Negotiator*- Represents department during negotiation of union contracts, sales, purchases, budgets; represents departmental interests

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