The attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, organizing, leading and controlling organizational resources.
Identifying goals for future organizational performance and deciding on the tasks and use of resources needed to attain them.
Involves assigning tasks, grouping tasks into departments, delegating authority and allocating resources across the organizations.
Monitoring employees activities, determining whether the organization is on target towards its goal, and making corrections as necessary.
The use of influence to motivate employees to achieve organizational goals.
Is a social entity that is goal directed and deliberately structured.
The degree to which the organization achieves a stated goal, or succeeds in accomplishing what it tries to do.
Refers to the amount of resources used to achieve an organizational goal. Based on how much raw material, money and people are necessary for producing a given volume of output.
The organization’ ability to attain its goals by using resources in an efficient and effective manner.
the cognitive ability to see the organization as a whole system and the relationships among its parts. Knowing where ones team fits into the total organization and how the organization fits into the industry, community, etc.
The manager’s ability to work with and through other people and to work effectively as a group member.
The understanding of and proficiency in the performance of specific tasks. Includes mastery of methods, techniques, and equipment involved in specific functions such as engineering, manufacturing, or finance.
Two reasons managers fail
Poor communication and poor interpersonal skills.
become more apparent during times of stress, uncertainty, change, or crisis.
are at the top of the hierarchy and are responsible for the entire organization. They have titles such as president, chairperson, executive director, chief executive officer(CEO), and executive vice president.
work at middle levels of the organization and are responsible for business units and major departments.
responsible for a temporary work project that involves the participation of people from various functions and levels of the organization, and perhaps from outside the company as well.
are directly responsible for the production of goods and services. They are the first or second level of management and have such titles as supervisor, line manager, section chief, and office manager.
are responsible for departments that perform a single functional task and have employees with similar training and skills.
are responsible for several departments that perform different functions. A general manager is responsible for a self-contained division, such as Nordstrom department store or a Honda assembly plant, and for all the functional departments within it.
a set of expectations for a manager’s behavior. (informational, decisional, and interpersonal)
Interim managers/contingent managers
managers who are not affiliated with a specific organization but work on a project-by-project basis or temporarily provide expertise to organizations in a specific area.
those aspects of a culture that guide and influence relationships among people.
the influence of political and legal institutions on people and organizations.
pertain to the availability, production, and distribution of resource in a society.
took a rational, scientific approach to management and sought to make organizations efficient operating machines.
emphasizes scientifically determined jobs and management practices as the way to improve efficiency and labor productivity.
emphasizes management on an impersonal, rational basis through elements such as clearly defined authority and responsibility, formal record-keeping, and separation of the management and ownership.
focuses on the total organization rather than the individual worker and delineates the management functions of planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling.
Human relations movement
based on the idea that truly effective control comes from within the individual worker rather than from strict, authoritarian control.
important in shaping ideas concerning how managers should treat workers.
Human resources perspective
suggests that jobs should be designed to meet people’s higher-level needs by allowing employees to use their full potential.
Behavioral sciences approach
draws from psychology, sociology, and other social sciences to develop theories about human behavior and interaction in an organizational setting.
uses mathematics, statistical techniques, and computer technology to facilitate management decision making, particularly for complex problems.
financial managers and others who base their decisions on complex quantitative analysis, under the assumption that using advanced mathematics and sophisticated computer technology can accurately predict how the market works and help them reap huge profits.
the ability to see both the distinct elements of a system or situation and the complex and changing interaction among those elements.
a set of interrelated parts that function as a whole to achieve a common purpose.
parts of a system, such as an organization, that depend on one another.
means that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
tells managers that what works in one organizational situation might not work in others. Managers can identify important contingencies that help guide their decisions regarding the organization.
TQM(Total Quality Management)
focuses on managing the total organization to deliver better quality to customers, moved to the forefront in helping U.S. managers deal with global competition.
CRM(Customer relationship management)
use the latest information technology to keep in close touch with customers and to collect and manage large amounts of customer data.
contracting out selected functions or activities to other organizations that can do the work more cost efficiently.
Supply chain management
managing the sequence of suppliers and purchasers, covering all stages of processing from obtaining raw materials to distributing finished goods to consumers.
includes all elements existing outside the boundary of the organization that have the potential to affect the organization.
affects organizations indirectly. It includes social, economic, legal/political, international, natural,and technological factors that influence all organizations equally.
is closer to the organization and includes the sectors that conduct day-to-day transactions with the organization and directly influence its basic operations and performance.
include the elements within the organization’s boundaries. Composed of current employees, management, and especially corporate culture, which defines employee behavior in the internal environment and how well the organization will adapt to the external environment.
of the external environment represents events originating in foreign countries as well as opportunities for U.S. companies in other countries.
of the general environment includes scientific and technological advancements in a specific industry as well as in society at large.
of the general environment represents the demographic characteristics as well as the norms, customs, and values of the general population.
represents the general economic health of the country or region in which the organization operates.
includes government regulations at the local, state, and federal levels, as well as political activities designed to influence company behavior.
that work within the legal-political framework to influence companies to behave in socially responsible ways.
includes all elements that occur naturally on earth, including plants, animals, rocks, and natural resources such as air, water, and climate.
The people and organizations in the environment that acquire goods or services from the organization.
organizations in the same industry or type of business that provide goods or services to the same set of customers.
provide the raw materials the organization uses to produce its output.
represents people in the environment who can be hired to work for the organization.
link and coordinate the organization with key elements in the external environment.
occurs when two or more organizations combine to become one.
involves a strategic alliance or program by two or more organizations.
the set of key values, beliefs, understandings, and norms shared by members of an organization.
is an object, act or event that conveys meaning to others.
is a narrative based on true events and is repeated frequently and shared among organizational employees.
is a figure who exemplifies the deeds, character, and attributes of a strong culture.
is a phrase or sentence that succinctly expresses a key corporate value.
a planned activity at a special event that is conducted for the benefit of the audience.
emerges in an environment that requires fast response and high-risk decision making.
is suited to organizations concerned with serving specific customers in the external environment but without the intense need for flexibility and rapid change.
emphasizes an internal focus on the involvement and participation of employees to adapt rapidly to changing needs from the environment.
uses an internal focus and a consistency orientation for a stable environment.
a culture that is based on a solid organizational mission or purpose, embodies shared adaptive values that guide the decisions and business practices, and encourages individual employee ownership of both bottom-line resluts and the organization’s cultural backbone.
defines and uses signals and symbols to influence corporate culture.
refers to the extent to which trade and investments, information, social and cultural ideas, and political cooperation flow between countries.
Market entry strategies
Exporting, licensing, and direct investing.
the company maintains its production facilities within the home nation and transfers its products for sale in foreign countries.
refers to the barter of products for products rather than the sale of products for currency.
Global Outsourcing (offshoring)
engaging in the international division of labor so that work activities can be done in countries with the cheapest sources of labor and supplies.
a corporation (the licensor) in one country makes certain resources available to companies in another country (the licensee)
occurs when a franchisee buys complete package of materials and services, including equipment, products, product ingredients, trademark and trade name rights, managerial advice, and a standardized operating system.
the company is involved in managing the productive assets, which distinguishes it from the other entry strategies that permit less managerial control.
a company shares costs and risks with another firm, typically in the host country, to develop new products, build a manufacturing facility, or set up a sales and distribution network.
Wholly owned foreign affiliate
a foreign subsidiary over which an organization has complete control.
means a company builds a subsidiary from scratch in a foreign country.
the management of business operations conducted in more than one country.
the physical facilities such as highways, airports, utilities and telephone lines that support economic activities.
the risk of loss of assets, earning power, or managerial control due to politically based events or actions by host governments.
includes riots, revolutions, civil disorders, and frequent changes in government.
means that people accept inequality in power among institutions, organizations and people.
means that members of a society feel uncomfortable with uncertainty and ambiguity and thus support beliefs that promise certainty and conformity.
reflects a value for a loosely knit social framework in which individuals are expected to take care of themselves.
a preference for a tightly knit social framework in which individuals look after one another and organizations protect their members’ interests.
stands for preference for achievement, heroism, assertiveness, work centrality, and material success.
reflects the values of relationships, cooperation, group decision making, and quality of life.
found in China and other Asian countries, includes a greater concern for the future and highly values thrift and perseverance.
found in Russia and West Africa, is more concerned with the pas and the present and places a high value on tradition and meeting social obligations.
people are sensitive to circumstances surrounding social exchanges.
people use communication primarily to exchange facts and information; meaning is derived primarily from words; business transactions are more important than building relationships and trust; and individual welfare and achievement are more important than the group.
refers to a natural tendency of people to regard their own culture as superior to downgrade or dismiss other cultural values, can be found in all countries.
refers to a person’s ability to use reasoning and observation skills to interpret unfamiliar gestures and situations and devise appropriate behavioral responses.
the frustration and anxiety thatt result from constantly being subjected to strange and unfamiliar cues about what to do and how to do it.
a single European currency. Used by Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain.
Multinational Corporation (MNC)
typically receives more than 25 percent of its total sales revenues from operations outside the parent’s home country.
Bottom of the pyramid (BOP)
proposes that corporations can alleviate poverty and other social ills, as well as make significant profits, by selling to the worlds poorest people.
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