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Principles of Wildlife Management exam 1

wild
Free ranging, untamed, unexploited, untouched, non-domesticated
wildlife
interaction of wild animals, wild animals
management
game commission, organization of assets, control, facilitation
wildlife management
application of ecological knowledge to population of vertebrates and their plant and animals associates in a manner that strikes a balance between the needs of those populations and the needs of people
husbandry
management of domestic animals
preservation
letting the natural system alone. this is the building philosophy of many natural parks
conservation
to maintain and use natural resources wisely. In general, the idea is maintain the resource in perpetuity
Era of Abundance (1600-1850)
Wildlife numbers are high
Wilderness areas are abundant
perception of untamed bounty
fear of predators is high
Era Exploration and Over Exploitation (1850-1900)
wildlife decline was due to repeating firearms, railroads, markets, overexploitation, and hunting for non game species
Horace Greeley
Founder of NY Tribute
Founder of the Liberal Republican Party
Go west, young, go west
The Boone and Crockett Club
formed by teddy Roosevelt
a coalition of conservationist and sportsmen concerned with the need to address the issues that affect hunting, wildlife, and wild habitat
Organic Act
passed 1897
stated that national forests were reserved for two reasons
1. to maintain favorable conditions for water flows
2. to ensure a continuous supply of timber
(nothing specific about wildlife)
Gifford Pinchot
1.appointed chief division of forestry
2.founding father of American conservation because of his great and unrelenting concern for the protection of the American forests
3.repbulican governor of PA
Era of Preservation and Production (1900-1930)
– American public realizes over exploitation was the principle cause of wildlife decline in US
– Most states establish fish and game department
– Many state/federal laws enacted
Lacy Act
-Federal law passed which prohibited the interstate transportation of illegally taken wildlife a federal offense and established formal regulations on imported wildlife species
-the original act was directed more at the preservation of game and wild birds by making it a federal crime to poach game in one state with the purpose of selling it in another
Pelican Island Fl
First bird reservation established by Roosevelt and Muir
Weeks-Mclean Act of 1912
Gave federal government authority over waterfowl, including close seasons and set bad limits
Migratory Bird Treaty Act 1918
Us and Canada: protects birds, including waterfowl that migrated between two countries
Migratory Bird Conservation Act 1929
Established national refuges for the enhancement of waterfowl
Era of Harvest and Habitat Management (1930-1965)
-Period in North America gave birth to the science of wildlife conservation and management
-specific programs were developed to understand the relationship between wildlife and their habitat
Blue Ribbon Committee
Composed of Aldo Leopold, Jay Norwood, Ding Darling, and Thomas Beck,
They wrote Ducks in Trouble
Aldo Leopold
– Father of Wildlife Management
-Professor of Forestry at university of Wisconsin
-published “game management” which was the first look to explore the basic skills and techniques of WLM, creating a new science that combined forestry, agriculture, biology, zoology, ecology, and education
Ding Darling
-Political Cartoonist
-Director of Bureau of Biological Survey, the precursor to the US and Fish WL service
Duck stamp
– $1
-designed by ding darling
– provided financial foundation for migratory waterfowl protection
pittman-Robertson act
provides a tax on hunting equipment and goes into a fund. The money collected is
Bald eagle protection act of 1940
first federal statue
made it illegal to kill or possess any part of a bald eagle
The Wilderness Act
designated 9.1 million acres as wilderness in 13 states
Era of Environmental Awareness (1965-now)
-environmental awareness increased
-president Kennedy called for testing of chemicals
-Carson has been called the “mother of modern environment movement”
value
something that holds meaning to you, internally
valuable
something everybody considered high importance
naturalistic attitude
attraction toward wildlife
wildlife is viewed as wildlife
pets are inferior to wild animals
ex)bird waters, taming wild animals is something you shouldn’t do
ecologistic attitude
more intellectual, similar sentiment as naturalistic
nature viewed as system of interdependent parts
interested in protecting the environment for sake of humans
ex)pa game commission, game management
humanistic attitude
personal affection of individuals, especially pets
extends empathy for pet and animals and the well being of all animals
ex) bets
moralistic attitude
well fare of animals both as pets and as wild animals
ex) PETA, activist groups
scientistic
objective, intellectual perspective of animals
animals are viewed as physical objects of study
animals are a means to acquire knowledge
ex)research scientists, geneticists, biologist
aesthethic
emotional detachment to animals, but view animals with symbolic properties
ex) fly fishing, fox hunting
utilitarian
practical or profitable qualities
ex)meat hunters, fisherman
dominionistic
view wildlife with a sense of superiority
feel the need to dominate wild animals
ex)bull fighting, dog training, rodeos
negativistic
avoid animals, dislike animals fear animals, and often superstitious
ex) black cats, fangs, venom
neutralistic
completely uninterested, passive avoidance due to indifference
two types of value
1. consumptive
2. nonconsumptive
non consumptive- recreational
money spent pursuing wildlife for sport or hobbies
ex) whale watching
non consumptive- social
social benefits derived from wildlife or form organizations associated with wildlife
ex) pheasants forever
non consumptive- aesthetic
benefit people get from the beauty of wildlife
ex) bird watching
non consumptive- scientific/ecosystem
benefits we get from studying wildlife. the more organisms there are in a system the more stable it is.
consumptive value
animals can be removed from there habitats and consumed for meat, hides, oil, plumage, and other goods
Gross Expenditure Method (GEM)
– equates value of hunting/fishing activity with the total dollars spent to participate in the activity
-estimate the total number of animals in an area and divide by the cost to view or hunt them
-easy to calculate
-cant be used to predict value if management plan changes or to generate consumer demand curve
-hard to capture money spent on used firearms, cash transactions, or barters
Travel Cost Method
– generates demand curve by determining how many people would visit a site or participate in an activity given the cost of traveling a certain distance
-includes price for fuel and distance traveled
– does not include price for guns, licenses, ammo, food, or lodging
– used to assess the value of parks, lakes, and similar public areas
contingent valuation method
surveys people and asks them how much they are willing to pay to participate in wildlife related activities (aka biding game)
– license fees
– park access fees
-“willingness to pay”
mitigation
economic unit is not money but habitat
– habitat units are calculated using a system known as the habitat evaluation procedure (HEP)
HSI models
allow us to make prediction/projections
-is a numerical index that represents the capacity of a given habitat to support a selected species
mitigation valuation
some agencies require more than a 1:1 ratio between impact and restoration
biopolitics
involves the interaction of the biological aspects of natural resource conservation wildlife a variety political factors such as economic, legal, and social forces
conservation directory
-published by the national wildlife federation publishes each year
-contains information on local, state, federal, international organizations dealing with a wide array of natural resource concerns
US department of interior
-DOI is the nation’s principle conservation agency
-mission is to protect America’s treasures for future generations and to conserve/protect fish and wildlife
-500 million acres of land
US fish and wildlife service
-manages over 150 million acres of national wildlife refuge system
-operates 70 national fish hatcheries and 86 ecological services field stations
-enforces federal wildlife laws, administers the endangered species act, manages migratory bird populations
-restores nationally significant fisheries, conserves and restores wildlife habitats, and helps foreign governments with conservation efforts
USGS
biological resource division works with others to provide the scientific understanding and technologies needed to support the sound management and conservation of out nations biological resources
National Park Services
-has oversight into nation parks, seashores, national monuments and other properties of national significance for their recreational, historical, and natural values
-coordinate the wild and scenic river and national trail systems
Bureau of Land Management
– to sustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the public lands for the use and enjoyment of present and future generations
– manages over 245 million acres of land
-majority is in western USA
US department of agriculture
-founded by president Lincoln
-“peoples department”
natural resources conservation service
-is responsible for all soil and water conservation programs that were previously carried out by the Soil Conservation Service
-Stream bank fencing and soil erosion programs
CREP (Conservation Reserve Enhancement Programs)
pay farmers to keep certain pieces of land out of crops or grazing to try to improve farm land
APHIS
animal and plant health inspection service
PA game commission
-manages and generates money from
— state game lands timber, mineral, and gas rev.
–federal excise tax on sporting arms and ammo (Pittman/Robertson fund)
Department of Conservation and National resources
-established july 1st 1995
-maintains and reserves 116 state parks
Department of Environmental Protection
– protects PA’s air, land, and water from pollution and to provide for the health and safety of its citizens through a cleaner environment
state rights doctrine
state have authority over wildlife that resides in their boundaries
tragedy of commons
poor management and overuse of resource becomes valueless
common law
it is the right of a landowner to prevent access for hunting and fishing on his/her property
native treaties
indigenous people, when they are on their land, are allowed to hunt/fish how they see fit
CITIES (Conservation on International Trade and Endangered Species)
an international agreement between government
appendix 1= species threatened with extinction
appendix 2=species not necessarily threatened with extinction but need to be protected
appendix 3= species that are protected in at least 1 country

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