Production project report
Air conditioning and climate control is an essential factor for the pleasant working and living conditions in buildings like factories, offices and even houses. These systems can be used to control the temperature as well as the humidity and other gas levels. Depending upon the area of use the Climate Control Systems have varying uses. For an industrial application it is generally used for more intense dust and hazardous flumes control whereas in case of residential application these systems are used for a more general temperature control application.
They are especially useful for skyscrapers and industrial building where the atmosphere has to be altered to suit the human conditions. In the present day scenario these systems have become an integral part of the construction engineering and technology. With the development of technology these systems have also advanced. Even the latest luxury cars by various automobile companies have incorporated these climate control systems which improve and control the atmospheric condition inside the car. In a more advanced mode, these systems have an essential application in the shuttles for space missions.
Due to the lack of atmosphere in space it is important to control the atmosphere inside the space shuttle. The current report presents
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The study showed that even though there have been major advancements in high-tech applications but the climate control systems for residential purposes have been restricted to air-conditioning. From this initial research an initiative to develop a product for domestic climate control was begun. Greenhouses are designed to create an eco-friendly environment for plants. They help in better productivity and growth of the plants by creating an appropriate environment. In general they consist of a room of green sheets with ventilation windows but enhanced results can be achieved through better climate control within the greenhouse.
The aim of this project was to design and develop a climate control system for commercial green houses and together with this product development, also complete a plan for the implementation of the production of such system for a possible future introduction to the market. 2. PRODUCT DESCRIPTION The PACH System is Air Conditioning and Heating System specially designed for the climate control for the commercial green houses. A greenhouse is a glass or plastic structure designed to retain heat from the sun in the form of solar radiations and thereby utilize this heat to increase the temperature of the chamber.
These conventional chambers also have windows for ventilation purpose. This way the temperature inside the greenhouse can be maintained to an optimum limit. We cannot control the outside climate but by using a greenhouse with climate control systems we can control the atmosphere within the greenhouse. The need for climate control systems is very high around the green house. Setting up the traditional systems requires high investments or large building modifications. These traditional systems require large space to setup the equipments and its associated delivery system.
Our product is specially designed to solve the climate control problems in cases where such big installations are not possible or are preferred to be avoided. In the PACH systems even the structural modification are minimal, thus avoiding the extra expense on the maintenance of these additional structures. The Portable Air Conditioning and Heating (PACH) System is an electronic mechanism of controlling the greenhouse climate. This way an optimum temperature and humidity range can be maintained. Typically the temperature range is maintained between 20oC to 25oC and the humidity levels must be below 80% (Munters).
In a conventional greenhouse it is important to control the maximum temperature. Excessive heating in a greenhouse can lead to burnt leaves, poor growth, damaged fruits etc. But the PACH systems have an advantage of automatic control which prevents excessive heating. The PACH System uses highly efficient electric designs for both cooling and heating functions (Energy Star certified). Therefore the electricity consumption associated with the system is small and thus less expense on electricity bills. Another advantage with this system is that it doesn’t require any fix installation.
This portable system has an exclusive small and light weighted design which enables the user to move the PACH Unit from one field to another with minimum effort whenever it is needed. This way it can be directly used in the area of requirement by simply moving the unit. This provides an ideal and economic solution for green houses with a few fields that might not be in use simultaneously at all times, and therefore also decreases the overall energy consumption of the climate control. The PACH unit is therefore a more cost efficient device compared to the traditional climate control units. Our PACH unit provides 12.
000 BTUs of cooling and is a very quiet operation. It has an evaporator which automatically exhausts all the collected moisture and completely avoids the need of emptying water collector tanks. It also includes a built-in air purifier system with a set of activated carbon filters that guarantee that only clean air will be re-circulated in your field. Along with the temperature control, the PACH unit is also equipped with a humidity control system which monitors and balances the humidity levels of its surroundings. This provides the most comfortable and controlled climate through all the year.
Frost-free refrigerators and freezers call for some means of timing the defrost cycle. As the frost accumulates in the freezer and refrigerator sections, it must be removed. For the easy removal of the frost, its buildup must be avoided. To keep away from frequent removal of frost, the defrost timer is used. It control how often the defrost cycle takes place. Contacts 1 and 3 are used for the defrost-motor coils. Contacts 2 and 4 are used to make contact with the proper circuit components to provide energy to the defrost heater or compressor.
The termination thermostat is located near or on the evaporator to sense its temperature and indicate that the defrost cycle is complete and has done its job of removing the frost from the evaporator. The defrost timer can be located in many number of places. Illustrates how it may be placed on the back of the refrigerator. In a wiring diagram of a frost-free refrigerator note the addition of other features, such as a drip catcher heater, mullion heater, and door heater. These heaters serve different purposes.
The drip catcher heater allows the water that forms during defrost to drain out of the freezer unit to a pan underneath to be evaporated by the heat of the compressor nearby. The mullion heater and door heater are used to prevent a frost buildup on and around the doors of the freezer and refrigerator compartments when the outside air is very humid. 2. RESEARCH The research conducted was mainly on the technical possibilities for the implementation of different climate control systems, the components, the existing control circuits, the physical principles behind their functionality and the best practices for their design and construction.
The Climate control systems are generally referred to HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) systems. These systems are generally used in building for maintenance of the temperature and humidity levels within the building; therefore they are sometimes termed as ‘building service’. Research, specifically based on the PACH systems for green houses showed that they climate control system must be able to control the temperature as well as the humidity level. These units are equipped with misting systems to control and decrease the temperature.
These misting systems uses a very high pressure and thin nozzle which produce micro-fine water particles. The micro-fine particles are advantageous as they cool the region without wetting the place. Another method used for cooling the area within the green house is the evaporative cooling method. In the evaporative cooling systems the fans are adjusted in such a way that they pull the air through the water soaked pads which cool the air passing through these pads. The technical background of the teams provided the ideal skills for a better understanding of the concepts discussed in the different literature that we consulted.
3. METHODOLOGY Every development and manufacturing work requires a proper sequence of steps in order to have an accurate approach towards the goal. The production project methodology consisted of the following steps: 1. Research of the technologies available, their principles and applications. In the development of any technology it is important to understand the researches and the associated principles made in the past. This helps in understanding the current technology and their application in the field of interest. 2. Selection of one particular application of climate control, for which to develop a solution
Once the study of different researched have been done, the particular climate control application is selected for which the system needs to be developed. Once a particular climate control is selected, then the rest of the development and research is carried out for this specific climate control. 3. The design of a possible solution for this selected application After the application area has been defined a possible solution of the design is proposed. The solution is specific to the application area decided. The properties of the proposed design should complement the application area.
4. The development and implementation plan of the product In this section, the plans for the development and implementation of the proposed design of the product are made. This is step where the technological and manufacturing aspects are clubbed together. While proposing the design it is important to keep in mind the manufacturing procedure and industrial equipments required for the manufacturing. 5. Evaluation of the product, its advantages and possible improvements Once the product is formed it is essential to figure out the functional properties and advantages of the product.
In this process we check if the properties of the system are in agreement with the desired properties. The flow-chat for the process involved in the research of the Climate Control Systems. The overall project schedule followed can be seen in Figure 1 – Project Schedule Figure 1 – Project Schedule 5. TEAM WORKING In the development process it is very important to divide the total work into different sections and distribute it among different teams. This helps in providing due attention to each section of the development technique.
In the current project, the work was equitably divided into teams and all team members were actively involved in all the stages of the project. The teams were divided on the basis of the field of expertise and skill of the members in the team. So that, each team was given a work on the basis of these skills. This combination of different areas of expertise and different skills was a success factor, because all team members contributed with different aspects of the project. The project management strategies were of special benefit for the team. These strategies included:
• Distribution of the work: This was especially useful while performing the initial research. In the research state large amount of literature and other information was required to be assessed and processed. Such intense works was simplified by distribution among different teams, with each team searching for a specific type of information. • Clear definition of the goals from the beginning: The members of the team were given specific goals that they were expected to achieve. So all team members had a clear idea of the aim of the project and therefore could contribute more efficiently to it.
6. RESULTS The development and innovations in the climate control systems are constant and very fast, for this reason, the most important improvement that must be done to the designed product is the increase of its efficiency, performance, power and available functions. The Portable Air Conditioning and Heating (PACH) system developed in this research has shown promising and efficient outputs. Although the resulting product is very similar to other products already available in the Climate Control Market, but it has some major advantages over some of them.
Some of these advantages are: • Small size • Light weight • High efficiency These advantages make the developed PACH system much more efficient in practical applications. The conventional fixed climate control units cannot be operated on a specific site because they cannot be moved. But with the PACH units, its small size and light weight makes it possible to move the unit from one site to another (within the green house) depending upon on the site where the temperature needs to be controlled. Thus they can be used locally.
Another advantage with the PACH systems is that they have higher efficiency compared to other available climate control systems. This property makes them energy effective devices. Even through the PACH system are highly advanced and energy efficient devices but there is a large scope in the research and development of these systems. There are a large number of features that can be incorporated in these systems to make them eco friendly and more economic. One of these features could be the implementation of an independent renewable energy supply instead of a normal electric connection.
This renewable energy would reduce the electric bills and would be eco-friendly. Such features can provide a significant competitive advantage to our product over the other similar products available in the market. 7. CONCLUSION Climate control is a very important need that has its use in many different applications worldwide. The large application area provides a huge market for such products and also makes it a very large and competitive business. Although, depending upon the application area there are a few changes that are required to make the unit adaptable and appropriate for a particular application.
The Climate Control systems, over the years have advanced in terms of technology but there are still many improvements that can be done to the available products. So there is still a great development and growth potential in the production of climate control systems. Marketing strategies are the key factor for the startup and growth of a business. Therefore, in our point of view, the main supporting factor in our business as well is the marketing and that is what we are going to work on hard. Through proper marketing strategies we would be able to promote and advertise the key and distinguishing feature of our product.
So the due effort would be put into the marketing of the PACH system to make it acceptable among the potential customers. During the commercial manufacturing of these systems we may find some problems at different steps but through suitable engineering thinking and aptitude we can overcome any technical problem. We are dedicated to working hard for the research and development of the product. Through our appropriate knowledge and hard work we would be able to rise above any difficulties during the manufacturing process.
We are committed to working hard and making things possible. In future this hard work in the field of research and development would also encourage us towards the further improvement of the product. This way a dependable and valuable product can be delivered to the customers. Appendix I TECHNOLOGIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE PACH SYSTEM The air-conditioning unit consists of a plug, a thermostat, overload protector, compressor, condenser, evaporator, capacitors for the motors, and some kind of switching for control of the fan motor.
The shaft on the fan motor extends from both ends of the motor. One fan blade is attached to one end to cool the condenser, and the other fan blade is attached to the other end of the motor to cause air to flow over the evaporator and cool the room. This way only one motor is used. Figure 2 – Cooling Circuit Appendix II The circuit shown is the demonstrated circuit in Leeds Met Labs , and what had been achieved is a heat and humidity detector, with a controlling unit to run the cooling fans upon detecting the alarm . Appendix III
The heating function is possible thanks to a built-in space heater that closes the circuit to the heating sequencer coil when the thermostat indicates that the temperature must be increased. The sequencer coil heats the bimetal strip that causes the main contacts to close. Once the main contacts are closed, the heating element is in the circuit and across the 240-volt line. The auxiliary contacts will also close at the same time as the main contacts. When the auxiliary contacts close, they complete the low voltage circuit to the fan relay. Appendix IV Figure 3 – Heating Circuit