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Progressive Era History Test Review

Define the Gilded Age
The Gilded Age was a term thought up by Mark Twain to describe the post-reconstruction era. It suggests that a thin layer of prosperity covered the poverty and corruption of most society.
Define laissez-faire
The idea that the government should play a very limited, hands off, role in businesses
Define Subsidy
A payment by the government paid to encourage the development of certain key industries, such as railroads
How did business influence politics during the Gilded Age
the laissez-faire approach to business meant that business favored high tariffs on imported goods to encourage people to buy American goods instead. They also began to accept land grants and subsidies, to ensure that they continued to receive these, they would give money to politicians.
In what ways did the government reform the spoils system and regulate railroads
The spoils system when elected officials appointed friends and supporters to government jobs, regardless of their qualifications. After his 1877 election, Rutherford B. Hayes refused to use the system. He appointed qualified members to the Cabinet and fired those who were not needed. In 1877 the Supreme Court in the Munn v. Illinois case allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders. this would include railroads.
What effect did the transition from depression to prosperity have on politics in the 1890’s
Grover Cleveland lost the 1888 election mainly because his view on tariffs. He favored a reduction in tariffs whereas Benjamin Harrison, wanted an increase in tariffs. Benjamin Harrison won all of the support of big business with his ideals and won the presidencies. However, the tariff increase eventually damaged the economy and Grover Cleveland was elected as president in 1920.
List three pull factors for immigrants moving to the cities
The most immigrants came to America during the years 1865 through 1920. They dreamed of becoming rich or at least securing land through the Homestead act. They heard that everyone could go to school in America and they could freely take part in a democratic government. The U.S. also offered a solution to skilled workers seeking jobs and Jews seeking religious freedom trying to get away from pogroms.
Define the Homestead Act
An 1862 government program signed by President Lincoln in 1862. Settlers could have 160 acres for a small fee if they were at least 21 years old or the heads of families, they were either Americans or immigrants filing for citizenship, they built a house of a minimum size, and they had to farm the land for five years before claiming ownership.
Define nativism
if you are a nativist it means that you favor native born Americans over immigrants
explain two reasons why Americans discriminate against immigrants
the immigrants were slowly coming into power. Nativists designed programs like the American Protective Association, which called for the teaching of only the American culture. It also put more emphasis on tighter rules of citizenship of aliens. When congress repealed the Contract labor act in 1885 it meant that foreign workers could no longer be recruited as laborers. However they still were illegally and this angered nativists and Americans in general.
What was the Progressive Era?
The period from about 1890 to 1920, during which a variety of reforms were made at the local, state, and federal levels.
Define muckraker
a journalist such as Upton Sinclair who played a key role in alerting the public of corruptions and wrongdoings in the government
What were 3 goals of the Progressives
1. Government should be more accountable to its citizens
2. Government should curb the power and influence of wealthy interests
3. Government should be given expanded powers so that it could become more active in improving the lives of its citizens
4. Governments should become more efficient and less corrupt so that they could competently handle an expanded role
How did the ideas of Progressive writers help to inspire new reform movements
Henry George wrote progress and poverty in 1879 explaining why poverty continued to plague an advanced civilization. George proposed that the government charge landowners a single tax on the value of land, whereas, before they were taxed on improvements to their land only. This became known as “single tax” and made land less attractive when not in use. Journalist Upton Sinclair and other muckrakers also alerted the public of wrongdoings in the government.
Define Municipal
a city level rather than federal or state
Define Home Rule
a system that gave cities a limited degree of self rule
Define Direct Primary
an election in which citizens vote to select nominees for the upcoming elections
Define initiative
a process in which citizens can put a proposed new law directly on the ballot in the next election by collecting voters’ signatures on a petition
Define Referendum
a process which allows citizens to approve or reject a law passed by the legislature
Define recall
permits voters to remove public officials from office before the next election
How Did Progressives wish to expand the role of government
Progressives believed that gov’t ought to increase its responsibility for the welfare of people. They wanted more social welfare programs which would ensure a minimum standard of living. They pressed for unemployment benefits, accident/health insurance, and a social security system for the disabled and the elderly.
What municipal and state reforms did the progressives achieve
municipally they improved city services, established public health programs, and workplace reforms sparked by the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire. Rose Schneiderman, a worker at the Triangle company, addressed the gov’t pleading fore workplace reforms, which she would receive. They also provided welfare services such as playgrounds and free kidergarten. State reforms brought more power to the voters and workplace reforms as well.
What were Theodore Roosevelt’s ideas for reform
The 3 c’s of of Roosevelt’s presidency were
1) Consumer Protection through the MIA or Meat Inspection Act
2) Controlling Monopolies through the Hepburn Act
3) Conservation of natural resources through national parks
What was TR’s “square deal”
it was brought about when the United Mine Workers called a strike to protest their low wages. By winter they still refused to work and TR compromised by threatening to use the army to seize and operate the mines. TR eventually gave the miners a 10% raise and reduced their hours from 10 a day to 9 a day. Basically a third party deciding fate of a company and its controller
Define the Meat Inspection Act
required federal inspection of meat processing to ensure sanitary conditions
Define the Hepburn Act
Authorized the ICC to regulate railroad rates
Define the 16th Amendment
1913 Amendment which gave congress the power to levy an income
Define the 17th Amendment
1913 Amendment which provided for the direct election of senators
Define the 18th Amendment
1919 Amendment which prohibited the manufacture and sale of liquor (Repealed in 1933)
Define the 19th Amendment
1920 Amendment which gave women full suffrage
What were Howard Taft’s Progressive and Non actions
Progressive- He set aside more land in one term than anyone, would fall under the conservation category
Non-Progressive- Payne Aldrich Tariff and Ballinger Pinchot affair
Why did the Payne Aldrich Tariff anger most progressives
Taft had run on a republican platform to lower tariffs. Taft called a special session of congress in 1909 to reduce tariffs however his efforts backfired. Some tariffs were reduced but Taft also signed a Protective tariff INCREASE which was the Payne Aldrich Tariff.
What was the Ballinger Pinchot affair
Taft appointed Richard A. Ballinger to the Secretary of Interior which angered conservationists because he opposed conservation policies on federal lands in the West, siding with businesses who sought unrestricted developments. His views put him in conflict with Gifford Pinchot. He favored scientific management of wilderness lands to allow both preservation and development. In 1909 it became known that Ballinger allowed a group of private businessmen to obtain land in Alaska containing rich coal deposits. When Pinchot protested to a congressional committee and aired suggestions of corruption on ballinger’s part, Taft fired Pinchot.
Who were the contenders in the election of 1912, and what was the outcome
The contenders were Howard Taft, TR, Woodrow Wilson, and Eugene V. Debs. Wilson would become the victor receiving only 42% of the popular vote, however he won the electoral college by a landslide.
What were Woodrow Wilson’s Progressive and Non Progressive actions
Progressive
1) Prevent monopolies and trusts
2) Federal Reserve
3) Underwood Tariff Act
4) Clayton Anti-Trust Act
Non Progressive
1) Opposition of 19th Amendment
2) Allowed segregation in Federal Government
What is a monopoly
complete control of a product or service
What is a trust
a group of separate companies that are placed under the control of a single managing board
What was the Federal Reserve
divided country into 12 districts each with a Federal Reserve Bank owned by its member banks. Every national bank was required to become a member of the Federal Reserve bank in its district and deposit some of its capital and cash into that bank. Member banks could borrow from their federal reserve to meet short term needs. Created new national currency called federal reserve notes.
What was the Underwood Tariff Act
it reduced taxes from 40 to 25% in 1913
What was the Clayton-Anti Trust Act
1914 passed by congress strengthening the Sherman Antitrust act of 1890. However instead of making all trusts illegal it just limited activities that big businesses could engage in
Compare Taft and Wilson’s tariff policies
Taft appeared to want to lower tariffs but showed lack of knoweledge of progressive needs when signed the tariff increasing Payne Aldrich Tariff Act. Wilson actually did the Progressives good by reducing tariffs with the Underwood Tariff act in 1913.
What was the order and years of the Presidents in the Progressive Era
TR from 1901-1909 Taft from 1909-1913 and Wilson who was a democrat from 1913-1924
What was the outcome of the 1896 election
the two nominees in the election were William Jennings Bryan, populist and democrat, and William McKinley, Republican. McKinley was supported by urban workers and middle class and came away with a victory. He oversaw a new tariff bill and higher gold standards and easily won the election of 1900 winning 292 electoral votes with Bryan only receiving 155

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