The two key processes defined in project management definitions are “managing” and “successfully”. Managing of projects in broader terms revolves around planning, monitoring, controlling and motivating whereas success of such management process is evaluated by time, cost and quality of the project delivered. A simplest project life cycle comprises four phases of Defining and Conceptualisation, Planning & Scheduling, Execution, Closure & Handover (Lock, 2003). Effective management is crucial to success of a project whereas constraints and limitations are inherent features, which can affect this success.
Background and Necessity of the Project The N.W.F.P Province is situated in the northernmost region of Pakistan and associated with the neighboring Punjab Province and the southern Sindh Province by National Highway 5 and National Highway 55. National Highway 5, located between Peshawar, the provincial capital of the region, and Karachi, the provincial capital of the Sindh region, was the busiest route between main cities of the country. There was a need to organize an substitute route for plummeting traffic volume on Highway 5. The amplifying and improving project of Highway 55 (the Indus Highway), which is a trunk road that also begins at Peshawar, crosses Kohat and D.I. Khan, the main cities of the region, and attain
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Sheer land (maximum ascent of 8%) and sharp curves (minimum radius of 12m) persist for 9.2km on the recent road around the Kohat pass. In accumulation, large vehicles must make a long bypass since the road is too tapered (6m) to travel. Vehicles that are able to take the route must travel at slow speed, and there is also protection matter because there are not sufficient guardrails in place on the road that runs along steep cliffs. The section around the Kohat pass has become a traffic jam for the Indus Highway to function as a trunk road, and since it pretense an obstacle to economic development in the distant northwest areas, road improvement is an vital priority.
Objective and Brief Description of the Project The project will construct a new tunnel (length: 1,885m, width: 7.3m) and an approach road (length: 28.17km, width: 7.3m) as an alternative route to the Kohat pass, situated between Peshawar and Kohat in the remote northwest area of Pakistan. The project will allow the passage of large vehicles, alleviate traffic congestion, ensure traffic safety, and reduce mileage and travel time. The project will thus enhance the transportation function of the Indus Highway as a trunk road and promote economic development in the west bank region of the Indus.
For civil engineering works and consulting services associated to the tunnel and the approach road, the similarity data between the plan and the recital are shown below. Main changes of plan and reasons are as the following: Because it was anticipated that rising traffic volume would surpass the inventive guess in the plan, the number of jet fans was increased from 7 to 11 (1 of them as a spare). For the north approach road, the original site was changed due to the complications in acquiring the assent of tribal people to their offering sites; however, the road length has been secured nearly as planned.
As for the south approach road, it was shuffle to evade the prefectural government’s office and an arsenal, and the road span was extended by about 4.7km. As a result of the relocation of approach road, TOR for re-examination of detailed design was added to consulting services. Bid assistance, construction management, conducting overseas-site training for engineering personnel of the executing agency, creating the operation and maintenance manual of the tunnel Re-examination of detailed design, bid assistance, construction management, conducting overseas-site training for engineering personnel of the executing agency, creating the operation and maintenance manual of the tunnel, creating the standard operating procedures (SOP), providing guidance on operation and maintenance
The entire construction phase of the project had been originally deliberate as from November 1994 to November 2000 (73 months) it was in fact from November 1994 to April 2003 (102 months), 1.4 times longer than the plan. There was a delay of three years before the beginning of civil engineering works because of the re-examination of detailed design resulting from the rearrangement of the approach road; prolonged assortment of consultants resulting from the addition of TOR and the reassessment of the proposal assessment; and delay in land acquisition for the north approach road. There was also delay of six and a half months in total during the construction works because the contractor had not obtained a working license and because Japanese consultants temporarily fled the site due to the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001.
Because the two-shift system was subsequently adopted for making up for delay, the original period of civil engineering works-December 1996 to November 2000 (48 months)-was actually from August 1999 to April 2003 (45 months) and it was shortened by three months. Project Cost The project cost had been originally intended as 10,462 million yen, but it in fact became 15,623 million yen (the cost overrun of 5,161 million yen) (149% compared to plan). The aspect of the cost enlarge were the amplify of construction volume escort by design change, the rearrangement of the approach road and the increase of cost resulting from the superior price growth than approximate due to the delay before civil engineering works (for about three years) (the CPI increasing rate during the 1994-98 period averages 10.8% a year).