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Project Management Chapter 8

5 whys
A technique in which you repeatedly ask the question “Why” to help peel away the layers of symptoms that can lead to the root cause of a problem
Acceptance decisions
Decisions that determine if the products or services produced as part of the project will be accepted of rejected
Appraisal cost
The cost of evaluating processes and their outputs to ensure that a project is error-free or within an acceptance error range
Benchmarking
A technique used to generate ideas for quality improvements by comparing specific project practices or product characteristics to those of other projects or products within or outside the performing organization
Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI)
A process improvement approach that provides organizations with the essential elements of effective processes
Cause-and-effect diagram
A diagram that traces complaints about quality problems back to the responsible production operations to help find the root cause; also known as a fishbone diagram or Ishikawa diagram
Checksheet
A technique used to collect and analyze data; sometimes called a tally sheet or checklist
Conformance
Delivering products that meet requirements and fitness for use
Conformance to requirements
Project processes and products that meet written specifications
Control chart
A graphic display of data that illustrates the results of a process over time
Cost of nonconformance
Taking responsibility for failures or not meeting quality expectations
Cost of quality
The cost of conformance plus the cost of nonconformance
Defect
Any instance in which the product or service fails to meet customer requirements
Design of experiments
A quality technique that helps identify which variables have the most influence on the overall outcome of a process
DMAIC (Define, measure, analyze, improve, control)
A systematic, closed-loop process for continued improvement that is scientific and fact based
External failure cost
A cost related to all errors that are not detected and corrected before delivery to the customer
Features
The special characteristics that appeal to users
Fishbone diagram
A diagram that traces complaints about quality problems back to the responsible production operations to help find the root cause; also known as a cause-and-effect diagram or Ishikawa diagram
Fitness for use
A product that can be used as it was intended
Flowchart
A graphic display of the logic and flow of processes that helps you analyze how problems occurs and how processes can be improved
Functionality
The degree to which a system performs its intended function
Histogram
A bar graph of a distribution of variables
Integration testing
Testing that occurs between unit and system testing to test functionally grouped components and ensure that a subset of the entire system work together
Internal failure cost
A cost incurred to correct an identified defect before the customer receives the product
Ishikawa diagram
A diagram that traces complaints about quality problems back to the responsible production operations to help find the root cause; also known as a cause-and-effect diagram or fishbone diagram
ISO 9000
A quality system standard developed by the international organization for standardization (ISO) that includes a three-part, continuous cycle planning, controlling, and documenting quality in an organization
Kaizen
The Japanese word for improvement or change for the better; an approach used for continuously improving quality in organizations
Lean
An approach for improving quality that involves evaluating processes to maximize customer value while minimizing waste
Maintainability
The ease of performing maintenance on a product
Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award
An award started in 1987 to recognize companies that have achieved a level of world-class competition through quality management
Maturity model
A framework for helping organizations improve their processes and systems
Mean
The average value of a population
Measurement and test equipment costs
The capital cost of equipment used to perform prevention and appraisal activities
Metric
A standard of measurement
Normal distribution
A bell-shaped curve that is symmetrical about the mean of the population
Pareto analysis
Identifying the vital few contributors that account for most quality problems in a system
Pareto chart
A histogram that helps identify and prioritize problem areas
Performance
How well a product or service performs the customer’s intended use
Prevention cost
The cost of planning and executing a project so that it is error-free or within an acceptable error range
Process adjustments
Adjustments made to correct or prevent further quality problems based on quality control measurements
Project quality management
Ensuring that a project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken
Quality
The totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs or the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfill requirements
Quality assurance
Periodic evaluation of overall project performance to ensure that the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards
Quality audit
A structured review of specific quality management activities that helps identify lessons learned and that can be improve performance on current or future projects
Quality circles
Groups of nonsupervisors and work leaders in a single company department who volunteer to conduct group studies on how to improve the effectiveness of work in their department
Quality control
Monitoring specific project results to ensure that they comply with the relevant quality standards and identifying ways to improve overall quality
Reliability
The ability of a product or service to perform as expected under normal conditions
Rework
Action taken to bring rejected items into compliance with product requirements, specifications, or other stakeholder spectations
Robust Design Methods
Methods that focus on eliminating defects by substituting scientific inquiry for trial and error methods
Run chart
A chart that displays the history and pattern of variation of a process over time
Scatter diagram
A diagram that helps to show if there is a relationship between two variables; sometimes called XY charts
Seven run rule
If seven data points in a row on a quality control chart are all below the mean, above the mean, or are all increasing or decreasing, then the process needs to be examined for nonrandom problems
Six 9s of quality
A measure of quality control equal to 1 fault in 1 million opportunities
Six sigma
A comprehensive and flexible system for achieving, sustaining, and maximizing business success that is uniquely driven by close understanding of customer needs, disciplined use of facts, data, and statistical analysis, and diligent attention to managing, improving, and reinventing business processes
Software defect
Anything that must be changed before delivery of the program
Software quality function deployment (SQFD) model
A maturity model that focuses on defining user requirements and planning software projects
Standard deviation
A measure of how much variation exists in a distribution of data
Statistical sampling
Choosing part of a population of interest for inspection
System outputs
The screens and reports the system generates
System testing
Testing the entire system as one entity to ensure that it is working properly
Unit test
A test of each individual component (often a program) to ensure that it is as defect-free as possible
User acceptance testing
An independent test performed by end users prior to accepting the delivered system
Yield
The number of units handled correctly through the development process

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