Project Monitoring and Control
The most essential concept in project management is the concept of monitoring and control which involves knowing the status of a project and control involves comparing the actual status with the plan, find out the deviations and initiating corrective actions so that the original plan can be fulfilled. Corrective actions lie at the core of successful project management. Project management, should have a system to measure the results effectively at pre-determined intervals, comparing them with the planned results and deciding and taking corrective actions. 5.
Project Management Information System (PMIS) The monitoring and control system of a project needs the support of a suitable Project Management Information System (PMIS). A comprehensive PMIS should cover the complete life-cycle of a project and would provide the necessary support for decision making. The purpose of this information system is to receive the actual data about the status of a project at pre-determined intervals, process this information to evaluate the impact of these outcomes and project these impacts in terms of an expected date of completion and an expected cost of completion.
Resources and Techniques Applied 1. PERT/CPM Programme Evaluation and Review Techniques (PERT) and Critical Path Method (CPM). uses the graphical network method of representation
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This means that the proposed activities would he carried out simultaneously by different agencies using different resources. A network comprises of a series of parallel lines, each representing one chain of activities to establish the “critical path” The network models allow the planner to consider the requirements of various resources at nay point of time. ‘Resource planning’ was achieved by rescheduling the non-critical resources which involved a number of algorithms and computer programmes/models to obtain a fairly balance resource profile for a project. 3. Cost Management
It is the most important dimension of management for budgeting the expense on the project and finding out a minimum total cost solution for the project. It is necessary to have data of different costs of carrying out an activity and the associated duration for each activity. By spending more on the activities on the critical path it is possible to reduce the total duration of the project at some additional cost. There are certain indirect costs of a project which are proportionate to the overall duration of the project and are independent of the individual activity costs. 4. Project Appraisal
In the life cycle of a project, there is a decision element at the end of the feasibility phase: the ‘question mark’ whether to go ahead or not, with the project, which is answered by ‘Project Appraisal’. If the viability of the appraisal process is unrealistic, then are possibilities of loosing an investment . The following specific aspects must be considered: ? Commercial Viability — Market Demand ? Technical Viability ? Financial Viability Success Factors In Project Management 1. Through feasibility study which does not overlook any significant element 2. Well planned DPR which is accepted by the agencies, and frozen before execution.
3. A capable project manager and a good team around him, with involvement right through all four phases of project. 4. An adequate organization with proper systems of communication, feedback and control mechanisms. 5. Adequate understanding of mutual roles and responsibilities of all interacting agencies with clear understanding of demarcations. 6. Quick identification and resolution of conflicts those are nonetheless inevitable. 7. Adequate and timely funding. 8. Certain degree of insulation to front line project managers from undue impacts from the environment. 9.
Regular updation and appropriate actions to continuously correct the deviations, till the end of the project. Conclusion The HealthSpace is the most comprehensive source of information used by patients in the United Kingdom to date with approximately 500 GP practices contribute to the system and cover 4,500,000 patients. Although it contains records of diagnoses, drug therapies and consultant specialist treatments, these are not directly related with each other necessitating the development of linking methodologies which must be developed and applied in order to infer relationships between diagnoses, drug therapies and other treatments.
HealthSpace also provides information about diagnosis, treatment, medication and outcome information of individual patients over the long term The HealthSpace data has been used to predict hospitalization – 1,000 asthmatic patients who were hospitalized for asthma during the calendar year 1994 were compared to 4,000 asthmatic patients who were not hospitalized during this same period. The study projects that HealthSpace is 80/90% accurate in predicting hospitalization.
Preliminary work using neural networks and rule induction techniques have supported the hypothesis that such data mining techniques have a role to play in elucidating the interplay of factors which can predict which patients are at greater hospitalization risk. The HealthSpace data has been applied to study disease prevalence and patterns of co-morbidity. Initial findings confirmed the existence of a large percentage of diabetic patients which suffer more than one chronic disease and is able to rank such co-morbidities.
The HealthSpace data has also been applied in optimizing clinical trials by identifying potential patients and maximizing resource utilization as well as for planning clinical trials as an objective planning tool for future drug requirements. The size of the HealthSpace database is approximately 32 gigabytes and it is expected to grow to derive the benefits offered and to the hardware and software infrastructure evolve with the database size