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Project of Motivation

Since this project is based on literature review, a systemic review of motivation theories and their successes and failures were carried out. Upon these studies, the results were appraised and conclusions made. Identifying, appraising and collating evidence from the various theories was done through a systemic review of the theories as documented through journal, books and internet sources. Examples of companies which have utilized the different theories have also been offered in this project.

Since this project, define motivation as the inspiration that managers offer to individuals or groups in the work place with the aim of encouraging them to work effectively and efficiently, the literature review gives a glimpse of the commonly suggested theories to managers throughout the developed or developing countries in the world. The review assimilates the different theories and concludes by examining whether any of the theory is more important than the others. Identification of sources The key words ‘Motivation’, ‘motivation in the workplace’ ‘worker satisfaction’, and ‘motivation theories’ were used on literature databases.

The databases used were Google, Google Books, and Questia on-line library. Only credible sources were used for the literature review. This meant that only books, journals and internet articles with the authors name were

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used. Internet blog sites were however excluded from this category despite having the names of authors. To prove successes or failures of a particular theory, a query regarding the same was run in the search engine and the results were reviewed on the methods used for the research, the robustness of the methods, the sample used by the researchers, study design and how valid the conclusions of the research appeared.

This project is based on literature review because research has shown that asking employees about motivation can be problematic because:1) its is difficult to describe their motivations accurately, 2) they lack insight into their motivations and 3) strong pressures on the employees may end up producing socially desirable answers rather than honest ones (Hill, Chris. 2002). In addition, even those who think that they are motivated find themselves with a growing dissatisfaction as times go by.

Employees for example may feel motivated by a salary increment but as they get used to the same amount each month, they may start yearning for more interventions from the company. Analyzing this findings needs personal application as different managers may find that specific theories are more relevant to them than others. Finding research finding to back the literature review was the biggest challenge experienced when researching this paper. Throughout the project, it is evident that all the theories suggested by the different people have their own sets of limitations.

This is further complicated by the fact that individual employees are motivated by different factors which are predetermined by their cultural social issues. The fact that companies can achieve better results by motivating individuals is thus not lost to most managers. In multinational companies with volumes of employees, individual motivation thus becomes a near impossible task. What most companies try nowadays is to devise motivation theories that are relevant to groups.

Often, these are attained by combining the desirable suggestions as stated in the different motivation theories. Overall, this project is proof enough that there is no standardized strategy of motivating employees. A manager who is determined to observe the different aspects present in the organization before coming up with a motivation strategy. In most cases, the strategy would just have to be one that serves the company well and not one that serves individual needs of each employee since this may be extremely hard to do.

Some of the guidelines that an employer may need to use in order to come up with a motivation strategy are stated in the questionnaire below. Further research can be done on the internet or from books that deal with motivation in the workplace. Further readings on books recorded on the Bibliography section would also be of much help.


SBelilos, Claire. (1997). Understanding Employee Drives and Motivations – The First Step towards Motivation at Work. CHIC Hospitality Consulting Services.

Retrieved 25 March 2009 from http://www.easytraining. com/motivation. htm Chowdhury, Faisol. (2008). Why Motivation is Important in the Workplace. BD Researchers. Retrieved 25 March 2009 from http://www. bdresearchers. org/Article/WhyMotivationIsImportantInTheWorkplace Harvard Journal. (1968). One more Time: How do you Motivate Employees. Harvard Business Review. Vol. 46 no. 1. Herzenberg, F. and Snyderman, B. (1993). The Motivation to Work. Ed. Chicago: Transaction Publishers. Hill, Chris. (2002). Developing a Methodology for the Examination of Motivation.

Abstract. Retrieved 25 March 2009 from http://www. rics. org/NR/rdonlyres/D611E0D6-D53D-4033-8966-C45B98B60E10/0/developing_methodology_for_examination_of_motivation_20020116. pdf Kopelman, Richard Et al. (2008). Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Y: Towards a Construct-Valid Measure. Journal of Managerial Issues. Retrieved 25 March 2009 from http://www. accessmylibrary. com/coms2/summary_0286-34704110_ITM Latham, Gary. (2006). Work Motivation: History, Theory, Research, and Practice. Ed. Toronto: Sage.

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