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PSC 101: Chapter 13

Council of Economic Advisers
An agency of the Executive Office of the President that is responsible for advising the president on the U.S. economy.
EXECUTIVE
A person or group that has administrative and supervisory responsibilities in an organization or government.
EXECUTIVE AGREEMENTS
Agreements between the United States and other nations, negotiated by the president, that have the same weight as a treaty but do not require senatorial approval.
EXECUTIVE ORDER
Directives of the president that have the same weight as law and are not voted on by Congress.
EXECTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT
The organizational structure in the executive branch that houses the president’s most influential advisors and agencies. The most important include the White House Office, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), the National Security Council, and the Council of Economic Advisers.
GOING PUBLIC
A political strategy in which the president appeals to the public in an effort to persuade Congress to support his or her political goals.
hierarchical model
A method of organizing the presidency that calls for clear lines of authority and that delegates responsibility from the president and through the chief of staff.
NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL
A group of presidential advisors made up of the vice president, the attorney general, and cabinet officers chosen by the president to advise the president on national security issues; it is part of the Executive Office of the President.
national security directive
A type of executive order with the force of law authorizing federal agencies or officials to take some action to protect national security.
OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET
An agency of the Executive Office of the President that is responsible for assisting the president in creating the budget.
PARTY POLARIZATION
Situation in which policy positions (or ideology) within political parties become more homogeneous, and policy positions across the parties move farther apart.
POCKET VETO
The veto resulting from a president taking no action, before Congress adjourns, on legislation that has passed Congress
POSITIVE GOVERNMENT
The idea that government should play a major role in preventing or dealing with the crises that face the nation.
prerogative view of presidential power
A view of presidential power, promoted by Abraham Lincoln, that argues that the president is required to preserve the Constitution and take actions to do so that otherwise might be unconstitutional
restrictive view of presidential POWER
A view of presidential power that argues that the president can exercise only those powers listed in the Constitution.
SIGNING STATMENTS
Pronouncements of how the president intends to interpret and apply a law when he signs a bill into law.
spokes-of-the-wheel model
A method of organizing the presidency that calls for the president to be the center of activity, with numerous advisors reporting directly to the president.
stewardship doctrine
A view of presidential power that states that the president is a steward of the people and should do anything the nation needs that is not prohibited by the Constitution.
strong-executive model
A model of the presidency in which the powers of the executive office are significant and independent from Congress.
unilateral powers
Presidential directives that carry the weight of law even though they have not been formally endorsed by Congress.
weak-executive model
A model of the presidency in which the executive would have a limited term, would have no veto power, and would be allowed to exercise only the authority explicitly granted by Congress.
White House Office
A section of the Executive Office of the President that houses many of the most influential advisors to the president, including the chief of staff; the White House legal counsel; presidential speechwriters; the president’s press secretary; assistants for domestic, foreign, and economic policy; and liaisons with Congress, the public, and state and local governments.

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