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QDM – Quality Driven Management

QDM Principles
> Customers Define Quality
> Be Scientific
> Measure, Measure, Measure
> Optimize Business Performance
> Quality Involves Teamwork
> View Failures as Opportunities
ABLE Problem Solving Process
> ASSESS
> BUILD
> LAUNCH
> EVALUATE
ASSESS
> ASSESS opportunities to improve the customer experience or business performance – and focus on one.
> Focus on opportunity and initiating a team are the earliest steps in ABLE.
BUILD
> BUILD understanding of the improvement opportunity and build the solution.
> Selecting a solution and identifying how you will measure success are important parts of BUILD.
LAUNCH
> LAUNCH the solution successfully through careful planning and control.
> The improvement effort proceeds through careful implementation and control planning.
EVALUATE
> EVALUATE the implementation to confirm its real work success.
> Performance is measured and results shared.
Opportunity Statement
a description of a quality problem, its impact, and the benefits of solving it.
Opportunity Statement – Key Points
a. Don’t include causes
b. Don’t attribute blame
c. Focus on a single problem
d. Don’t offer solutions
e. Be realistic
QDM Methodologies
a. ISO
b. Baldridge
c. Lean
d. Six Sigma
A dissatisfied customer with any OpCo stands a ____________ of switching to a competitor.
40% chance
QDM Mission
To deliver market-leading customer experiences, business excellence, and financial returns through a quality-oriented culture and day-to-day application of quality science.
Quality Costs – Two very real types:
a. The Cost of Poor Quality
b. The Cost of Good Quality
1:10:100 Rule:
• $1 spent on doing the job right saves
• $10 on correction and
• $100 on the cost of a failure
In businesses generally, _____________________ in a business are due to mistakes, errors, and replacing lost customers.
10-20% of corporate expenses
QDM Quality Measures:
a. Service Quality Index (SQI)
b. Key Process Indicators (KPI)
c. Dashboards and Scorecards
QAT – Quality Action Team
a group of FedEx employees who come together to work intensively on a quality issue, then disband once the problem has been solved.
Applying QDM Summary:
• When you see a problem, fix it.
• When you see something that can be done better, do it.
• Take ownership of work, do it in the best way possible.
All metrics, whether SQIs or KPIs, or tools such as dashboards or scorecards, help meet the organization goals.
True
QDM’s two main goals:
a. Exceed customer expectations
b. Optimize the processes by which work gets done
QDM Principles:
a. Customers define quality
b. Be scientific
c. Measure, Measure, Measure
d. Optimize business performance
e. Quality involves teamwork
f. View Failures as opportunities
QDM Principles – Customers define quality
We strive to understand customer requirements and expectations.
QDM Principles – Be scientific
We base decisions on facts and data, rather than guesses or opinions.
QDM Principles – Measure, Measure, Measure
Measure failures, measure variation and measure success.
QDM Principles – Optimize business performance
Minimizing unnecessary effort, time, and cost whenever possible.
QDM Principles – Quality involves teamwork
View work as a collaborative process.
QDM Principles – View Failures as opportunities
Seek the truth and avoid playing the blame game.
Customers define quality – three questions:
a. Who are my customers?
b. Are they satisfied with the services I provide?
c. What areas do they want me to improve?
Customers define quality – Key Tools:
a. Voice of Customer (VOC) Translation
b. Process Flow Map
c. Customer Corridor Map
Voice of Customer (VOC) Translation
Can be used to help translate customer surveys and other research into actionable measurements.
Process Flow Map
• Can help us understand the processes that support customers
• Reach out and interact with those who receive our work
• Streamline operations and avoid errors
Customer Corridor Map
• Connect our role to external customer needs
• Build understanding of customer needs
• Work to increase brand loyalty
Be scientific – three questions:
a. Have we gathered an adequate fact base?
b. Do we understand the root cause of the problem?
c. Will our solution address the root cause?
Be scientific – Key Tools:
a. Pareto Chart
b. 5 Whys
c. Fishbone Diagram
Pareto Chart
Tells us where to focus
5 Whys
a way of brainstorming that can help us to dig beyond our first observation of a problem’s cause, and discover deeper causes.
Measure, Measure, Measure – three questions:
a. What can we measure to understand when we have failed to meet a customer expectation and thus have room to improve?
b. What can we measure to show us how consistently, or with how much variation, we are providing a positive customer experience?
c. What can we measure to ensure that the results from new improvements are a success?
Measure, Measure, Measure Key Tools:
a. Run chart
b. Control Chart
c. Data Collection Plan
Run chart
Allows us to measure failures.
Control Chart
> Allows us to picture the degree to which a process varies around a centerline and whether or not the process is within defined limits of acceptability.
> A control chart is used to monitor and control the variation in a business process.
Data Collection Plan
Allows us to measure successes.
Optimize business performance – three questions:
a. What is waste?
b. Can we identify waste and value-added or value-enabling activities in our processes?
c. How do we use QDM’s waste reduction tools to minimize waste?
Optimize business performance – Key tools:
a. Waste Walk
b. 5S+1
c. Gap Analysis
Waste Walk
A tour where we go make 1st hand observations about current process. Great way to find opportunities.
5S+1
Helps to streamline processes by making processes easier to manage and inefficiencies easier to spot. Sustain, Sort, Simplify, Shine, Standardize, +Safety
Sort
Remove the unnecessary and retain only things needed to do the job.
Simplify
Define a place for everything and put everything in its place in a manner that promotes work flow.
Shine
Clean, sweep, and wash so it is easier to spot issues earlier.
Standardize
Make routine maintenance and cleaning part of the culture.
Sustain
Maintain through continual use of improved practices.
Safety
> plus one that always come first, Safety.
> Ensure safety is a key driver in processes, including ease of access to critical safety areas.
Gap Analysis
> Helps to identify gaps that keep us from reaching goals, and raise our performance.
> Compares actual performance to potential performance.
> Need to think about the entire process from beginning to end.
Systems Thinking
Focusing on the whole system.
Constraints
The steps of our systems and processes that limit the ability to achieve more of a goal.
Sub-optimized
Sometimes an optimized process has more capability than other steps in the process. In order to maintain a smooth flow, the overall system must move at the pace of the slowest process. Other processes in the system are slowed down, which is called “sub-optimizing”.
systems thinking
When optimizing performance, you should focus on both waste and core constraints. Identifying and removing core constraints is part of “systems thinking”.
Value added activity
Directly adds value for customers willing to pay.
Value enabling activity
> A requirement for doing business.
> Meets legal, regulatory, safety or business requirements.
Non-value added activity
> Those activities that we call waste.
> All activities that neither add nor enable value.
> One such as re-delivering a shipment or performing a task for an internal customer more than once.
Quality involves Teamwork – two questions:
a. Have we built a shared understanding of the teamwork that a business process requires in our daily work?
b. Who should we involve in an improvement effort?
Quality involves Teamwork – Key Tools:
a. SIPOC
b. RACI
SIPOC
> A simplified linear block diagram of a work process, organized in a specific order
> Supplier, Input, Processing, Output, Customer.
RACI
Used to understand people’s roles in a process.
• Responsible – Does the work
• Accountable – Responsible for the outcomes
• Consented – Approve project impact
• Informed – Notified about project impact.
Stakeholder Analysis
Used to identify people who have an interest in the process or activity.
View Failures as Opportunities – three questions:
a. Do we understand the root cause of problems, and have we gathered learning about them?
b. Have we developed an action plan?
c. Have we shared our learning with others?
View Failures as Opportunities – Key Tools:
a. Root Cause Analysis
b. Milestone Chart
c. Lessons Learned
Root Cause Analysis
A method to determine the cause of a quality problem that once corrected, will yield the greatest improvement. May use any number of familiar tools like:
• Brainstorming
• 5 Whys
• Fishbone
• Pareto Chart
• Control Chart
• Process flow
Milestone Chart
Used for any type of planning, including Action Planning, when we want to define the steps we will take to improve a process or prevent a failure.
Lessons Learned
Help us to identify the things that we think can be done better in the future, and provide a way for us to document and share those learnings.
5S+1 Tool
Which of these tools might help you maintain an organized, safe and high-performance way of working?
This graphic is used in the Measure, Measure, Measure principle of QDM. It is an example of which of the following?
This graphic is used in the Measure, Measure, Measure principle of QDM. It is an example of which of the following?
a. Control Chart (Wrong)
b. SQI
c. Data Collection Plan
d. Run Chart (Correct)
QDM Lean Waste Concepts – 3 categories
a. Value-add activities
b. Value enabling activities
c. Non-value add activities
8 Commonly Recognized Waste: TIM C. WOOD
a. Transportation
b. Inventory
c. Motion
d. Correction
e. Waiting
f. Overproduction
g. Overprocessing
h. Disengagement
Transportation
Unnecessary movement of materials or information.
Inventory
Having more parts, pieces, or information than is necessary at one time.
Motion
Extra movement by people that does not add value.
Correction
The expense, rework, or scrap resulting from service failure or incorrect documentation.
Waiting
Idle time while waiting for things such as materials, information, or approvals.
Overproduction
Making more than is immediately required or unnecessary work product.
Overprocessing
Efforts, high standards, or tight specifications that do not add value from the customer’s view.
Disengagement
Not fully tapping employee experience, knowledge, creativity, and capabilities, or delegating tasks to those with inadequate training.
Bottlenecks
> A common cause of diminished outflow from a process, and occur at points in a process where the performance and capacity of the entire process is limited by a lack of components and resources.
> For complex projects, focus first on bottlenecks.
ASSESS Phase Tools:
a. 5 Whys
b. Waste Walk
c. SIPOC
d. Project Charter
Project Charter
A formal document describing a Quality improvement project and stating the business objectives for it.
BUILD Phase Tools:
a. Time Value Map (TVM)
b. 5S+1
c. Standard Work
d. Spaghetti Map
e. KANBAN
f. POUS
g. Visual Management
KANBAN
A visual signaling method used to identify when an item (or production) is needed in a replenishment system. Example is the reminder slip near the back of your checkbook that prompts you to reorder.
POUS
> Point of Use Storage.
> Locating supplies, tools, or information near the use point, preferably in small quantities that are replenished often.
Visual Management
Using visual indicators to identify and clearly mark storage locations for parts and products, to identify a condition that calls for direct action, or to communicate information or progress to others.
Standard Work
Establishing the most safe and effective combination of steps and resources for performing a task, and then consistently applying this standard work method in order to reduce variation, defects, and waste.
LAUNCH Phase Process/Tools
IMPLEMENTATION PLAN
IMPLEMENTATION PLAN
It may include the following:
a. Approval – Get approval from management to proceed.
b. Task – Request and implement system changes.
c. Budget – Acquire a full time dedicated resource.
d. Training – Provide documentation and training.
e. Communication – Communicate process improvement.
f. Timeline – Go Live.
g. Control Plan – Generate metrics for management.
EVALUATE Phase Tools:
Dashboard – An easy-to-read visual representation of the status of several key variables of a process.
Process Improvement Tools:
a. Visual Management
b. Points of Use Storage (POUS)
c. Kanban
ASSESS Phase Summary Questions:
a. Is the problem being addressed correctly identified and prioritized?
b. Are the right people working on this project?
c. Does the scope of the project focus on one opportunity and align with the SIPOC analysis the team did?
d. Does this project impact an SQI metric or does it align with our strategic business priorities?
ASSESS Phase Key Steps:
a. Identify potential opportunities
b. Focus on one opportunity
c. Define the scope and identify stakeholders
d. Form a Quality Action Team (QAT) – if needed
ASSESS Phase Typical Deliverables:
a. Opportunity Statement
b. Quality Action Team (QAT) Charter – if needed
c. Approval and support to go forward
ASSESS – Identify potential opportunities TOOLS
a. SQI Scorecard
b. Key Process Indicators
c. Customer Research
d. VOC Translation
e. Waste Walk
f. Process Map
ASSESS Phase Improvement Opportunities (3 Types):
a. Customer Experience
b. Service Level
c. Efficiency and Cost
ASSESS Improvement Opps – Customer Experience
a. Add Value
b. Delight our customers
c. Increase revenue
d. Customer satisfaction
ASSESS Improvement Opps – Customer Experience TOOLS
a. Brainstorming
b. VOC Translation
Brainstorming
A guided group discussion for generating a list of ideas about a topic and for eliciting group involvement.
VOC Translation
A method for translating customer expectations when defining measurable characteristics.
ASSESS Improvement Opps – Service Level
a. SQI Index/KPIs
b. Scorecards
c. Dashboards
ASSESS Improvement Opps – Service Level TOOLS
a. Pareto Charts
b. Run Charts
c. Control Charts
Pareto Charts
A bar chart that has been rearranged in order to put the categories in order – from the most frequently occurring category to the least.
Run Charts
A graph that shows the performance of a process over time.
Control Charts
A graph that pictures the degree to which a process varies around a centerline, and that can be used to determine whether the performance of a process is stable and predictable.
ASSESS Improvement Opps – Efficiency and Cost
a. Reduce current costs
b. Avoid future costs
c. Improve efficiency
ASSESS Improvement Opps – Efficiency and Cost TOOLS
a. Waste Walk
b. Process Map
c. SIPOC
Process Map
A drawing that shows the steps of a work process in sequence and creates a common understanding of how work flows.
ASSESS Key Steps – Focus on one opportunity TOOLS
a. Opportunity Statement
b. Five Whys
c. Brainstorming (note deck had this as part of Identify Potential Opportunities)
d. Pareto Chart
e. Multivoting
f. Solution Selection Matrix
g. Decision Trees
ASSESS Key Steps – Focus on one opportunity
Designed to assist with
a. Identifying high-leverage improvement opportunities
b. Identifying good opportunities for ABLE projects – Customer centered, likely to succeed, and aligned to strategic goals.
c. Setting an achievable scope
Multivoting
A structured system of team voting that can reduce a long list of options to a few.
Solution Selection Matrix
A way to choose one option from several possibilities by constructing a table showing how well each option meets selected criteria.
Decision Trees
A diagram that visualizes decision-making options and their potential outcomes as branches of a tree.
Opportunity Statement
> This document can help a team gain consensus on what a problem is, and also help explain the problem to others and enlist support.
> Used to describe the problem, impact, and benefits.
ASSESS Key Steps – Define the scope and identify stakeholders TOOLS:
a. Top-Level SIPOC – Note that the SIPOC should only include 5-7 high level steps for your process. At this point in the ABLE phase, these steps represent the “current state”, not the “desired state.”
b. Customer Corridor Map – A linear, block diagram of steps involved in acquiring, serving, and maintaining a customer.
ASSESS Key Steps – Form a Quality Action Team (QAT), if needed TOOLS
a. QAT Charter
b. QAT Facilitation Guide
ASSESS Key Steps – Form a Quality Action Team: Formal Checklist:
a. Identify QAT needs
b. Recruit team members
c. Draft the QAT charter
d. Secure buy-in and support
e. Prepare kick-off plan
ASSESS – Identify QAT needs
a. Facilitator
b. Sponsor
c. Access to data
d. Budget
ASSESS – Recruit team members:
a. Facilitator
b. Sponsor
c. Process Owners
d. Internal Customers (no External Customers)
e. Subject Matter Experts
f. Creative Thinker who is not directly involved with the process
g. Suppliers
ASSESS – Draft the QAT Charter
> Note that the Sponsor will own the Charter.
> A charter is usually not fully completed at the time the team gets started.
a. Business Case
b. Opportunity Statement
c. Goal Statement
d. Project Scope
e. Project Plan
f. Secure buy-In and Support
Business Case
The statement of how this project ties into the organization’s strategic goals.
Goal Statement
An actionable and quantifiable goal for the project.
Project Scope
Indicate the start and ending points of the business process. You identified the scope through SIPOC diagram that was previously created.
Project Plan
Indicate the QAT team members, facilitator, sponsor, and scribe.
Secure buy-In and Support
Share QAT Charter with all stakeholders and solicit buy-in.
ASSESS – Prepare Kick-Off Plan
a. Gives visibility
b. Shows support
BUILD Phase Key Steps:
a. Research potential causes by performing root cause analysis.
b. Collect data to narrow in and focus on a singular root cause.
c. Explore a range of potential solutions and select one.
d. Pilot the proposed solution, if needed.
e. Seek leadership and stakeholder approval.
BUILD Phase Typical Deliverables:
a. In-depth Root Cause Analysis
b. Proposed solution
c. Measurement to be used to determine success
d. Pilot results, if needed
e. Approval of leadership and stakeholders to move forward
BUILD Phase – Customer Experience Improvement Opps TOOLS
Gap Analysis
Gap Analysis
A table of flowchart that compares the current state versus the desired state and lists the requirements necessary to improve performance.
BUILD Phase – Service Level Improvement Opps TOOLS
a. Pareto Chart
b. Pie Chart
c. Fishbone Diagram
Pie Chart
Used to illustrate the percentage of the data in each “slice”. Use when the percentage in each category is the most important feature of the data.
BUILD Phase – Efficiency and Cost Improvement Opps TOOLS
a. 5S+1
b. TVM
TVM
Time Value Map is a diagram for identifying the amount of time spent on non-value added activities within a process.
BUILD Phase Summary Questions:
a. Was the root cause analysis sufficiently broad and deep?
b. Has the QAT supported its analysis of the root cause with data?
c. Does the data support the conclusions
d. Are all the process owners Correctly Identified/Involved?
e. What are the criteria the team used to evaluate solutions?
f. How does it address the root cause
g. What alternatives were considered?
BUILD Phase Accomplishments:
a. Research
b. Root Cause
c. Solution
d. Pilot
e. Approval
BUILD Phase Key Steps – Select One Solution TOOLS:
a. Poka Yoke
b. Cost-benefit Analysis
c. Measure of Success
d. Brainstorming
e. Multivoting
f. Solution Selection Matrix
Poka Yoke
Mechanisms designed to mistake-proof a process by preventing defects and errors—or making them obvious.
Cost-benefit Analysis
> Assessing the dollar cost of an improvement versus the expected payout to determine whether the expenditure makes financial sense.
> A cost-benefit analysis is often used to judge whether or not a Quality improvement project offers a quantifiable financial benefit.
Measure of Success
An output measurement that ensures the results from the new improvements really measure up to our goals.
CHANGE – Why is it important to be able to implement and manage organizational change?
> You and your company will be able to effectively introduce innovation and improvements to gain or maintain a competitive advantage.
> You’ll know how to achieve the adaptability and the flexibility needed to survive in today’s markets.
Change triggers can by any number of things including:
> Resizing
> New technologies
> Adaptation to changing trends
> New regulatory requirements
Change Barriers
> Goals may conflict
> Some people won’t recognize the need
> Disadvantages for some people
> Additional effort required
Change – Kurt Lewin’s Phases of Organizational Change
1. Unfreeze
2. Transition
3. Freeze
Change – Lewin’s Unfreezing Key Steps
> Involves creating a case for change by convincing the organization that the problem exists and is urgently in need of a fix.
> Only then can you begin to sell a particular solution.
> Define a compelling vision
Change – Lewin’s Unfreezing Tools
Force Field Analysis
Force Field Analysis
> Simply an organized method to weigh up the pros and cons of a situation.
> If the pros outweigh the cons, people will be motivated to change.
> Applicable to a number of disciplines, this approach deals with the factors driving movement towards change and those that hinder change.
Change – Lewin’s Transition Key Steps
> Training and resources
> Good communication
> Expect mistakes
Change – Lewin’s Transition Tips
> Setup small achievable steps
> Give everyone a role
> Encourage suggestions
> Continue providing communication
> Take time to reflect
> Enforce new policies
Change – Lewin’s Freeze Phase
> Often called refreezing
> It’s where the organization returns to a stable state with the new goals.
Change – Lewin’s Freeze Key Steps
> Freezing = New starting point
> Avoid things slipping backwards
> Remain rather flexible
CHANGE – You’re leading a production change initiative in a manufacturing company. The company has a traditional culture and mindset, and the department heads are reluctant to change methods they believe are working. Match the phases in the change process tot he corresponding actions you can take to facilitate change
1. Freeze – Replace all old manuals and procedural instructions with new materials.
2. Transition – Provide well-trained coaches for each project team to ensure understanding of the new production methods.
3. Unfreeze – Highlight the forces for and against the change to convince department heads to get on board.
Change Broad Categories
1. Evolutionary Change
2. Transformational Change
CHANGE – An outdoor equipment company has added new products in response to marketplace changes by new technology. Traditionally focused on backpacks, tents and camp stoves, the firm now sells camouflage mobile phones, portable deep fryers, solar rechargers and a variety of other hi-tech products. However, the new products required competencies far beyond the traditional camping and hunting expertise. How would you characterize this type change?
Strategic reorientation
Transformational Change
> Occurs infrequently
> Succeeds infrequently
> Involves a fundamental re-evaluation and redirection of the core business of an organization.
Evolutionary Change
Incremental change that occurs over time.
CHANGE – As a change leader, it’s important to be able to recognize the type of change you’re managing. Match the types of change to examples of each. A change type may match to more than one example.
1. Transformational Change –
> An automobile manufacturer known for producing expensive, gas-consuming SUV’s switches to making small, energy-efficient electric-hybrid cars.
2. Evolutionary Change –
> A company introduces a radically different type of product to its existing market.
> A company makes its processes become more cost-efficient over time because of innovative improvements to the system discovered during each major project.
Change Selection Factors
> Time Frame
> Extent of the change
> Resistance
> What’s truly important and at stake
Change – Empirical-rational Approach Strategies
1. Use early converts
2. Focus on negatives of the current state
3. Offer incentives
CHANGE – Do you think the empirical-rational approach can be used successfully when the potential risks of making a change outweigh the benefits?
No
Change – Normative Re-educative Approach Strategies
1. Organizational leaders control large groups
2. Informal leaders can be involved
3. Promotions can help promote change
Change – Power-coercive factors and challenges
1. Cultural climate
2. Level of danger
3. Risk and urgency
CHANGE – Match each change management approach to the conditions under which it works best. More than one approach may apply to each condition.
1. Power-coercive: High risk
2. Environmental-adaptive: Radical change
3. Normative re-educative: Long deadlines, Low resistance to change
4. Empirical-rational: Long deadlines, Low resistance to change
CHANGE – Before learning to combine approaches, you should be sure you’re familiar with their basic ideas. Demonstrate your knowledge of the basic assumptions of the four approaches by matching each approach to its assumption.
1. Power-coercive: People do what they are told.
2. Environmental-adaptive: People will quickly adjust to change.
3. Normative re-educative: People want to go with the flow.
4. Empirical-rational: People do what they think is good for them.
CHANGE – There is likely to be considerable resistance to change in the accounting firm. And with the recent trans in the industry, the time frame for making the change is rather short. Which approaches should executives use to manage the change in this case.
1. Introduce penalties for those who fail to respect the culture diversity in the new company and adopt the new courtesy policies.
2. Use an internal promotional campaign to emphasize the cost savings to the company and the increased employee satisfaction that will come from being allowed to work from home.
CHANGE – Which statements about combining approaches to change management are correct?
1. Power-coercive strategies may be used to manage resistance to an environmental-adaptive approach in the case of a large-scale transformational change where resistance is likely to be high.
2. Empirical-rational ad normative re-educative approaches can be used together when the frames are long, there’s a clear benefit to the change and a low level of resistance is expected.
CHANGE – Certain approaches apply certain conditions. Match each change management approach to the conditions under which it works best. More than one approach may apply to each condition.
1. Power-coercive: Tight time frames; Imminent risk.
2. Environmental-adaptive: Tight time frames; Radical change.
3. Normative re-educative: Weak resistance
4. Empirical-rational: Weak resistance
CHANGE – Which statements illustrate correct ways to combine approaches to managing change?
1. If a company expects radical change, resistance will likely be high. When given compelling benefits, use an empirical-rational approach to an environmental-adaptive strategy to promote the benefits. This may reduce subsequent fallout.
2. When time frames are short and the organization is in a crisis, a power-coercive approach may be supplemented by an empirical-rational strategy to lower resistance, if benefits of the change are significant and clear.
CHANGE – You’re leading a customer service improvement initiative in a retail clothing store chain. Your company was considered innovative when it first became renown, but trends have changed and now it’s time to revamp to address new customer needs. While executives recognize the need to change, employees will be reluctant to leave behind the principles upon which the company was founded. Match the phases in the change process to the corresponding actions you can take to facilitate change.
1. Unfreeze – Educate employees about financial and sales data that shows loss of market share to new companies.
2. Transition – Set up a series of small, achievable intermediate goals to discover the new way of doing things.
3. Freeze – Adjust rewards systems to reflect the new company values and remove any that support the old ways.
CHANGE – When leading change, it’s important to recognize the type of change you’re managing. Match the types to examples of each. A change type may match more than one example.
1. Transformational:
> Considering the increased use of synthetics, a cotton producing company merged with a polyester manufacturing firm.
2. Evolutionary:
> A cable TV provider added mobile phones and high-speed Internet service to its offerings to compete with similar packages offered by competitors.
> A construction company added a environmentally friendly product line to address changes in the market.
SIPOC – Supplier
Those who provide inputs to a process.
SIPOC – Inputs
Mandatory items provided by the supplier.
SIPOC – Process
The steps within the overall project.
SIPOC – Outputs
Handed off to the customer at the end of the process.
SIPOC – Customers
Those who receive the outputs of a process.
Gap Analysis Tools
> SIPOC
> Flow Chart
Gap Analysis Steps
1. Map out or list the Current State
2. Identify the Desired State
3. Highlight any Gaps
4. List what’s required to get from the current state to the desired state.
5. List the resources needed to effect change.
SIPOC Benefits
Understand a process:
> Where it begins and ends
> Process Flow
> What it creates
> Who it involves
STAKEHOLDERS – When creating a linear flow diagram or a SIPOC
List the steps that occur between the customer and the supplier. (WRONG)
List the steps that add value to the input and transform it into output (MAYBE)
STAKEHOLDERS – An essential function of a charter is to:
Familiarize management with your project, your team, and its goals.
STAKEHOLDERS – Which of the following activities can help a team determine the scope of a project?
> SIPOC (YES)
> Stakeholder analysis (WRONG)
Refer tot he flow chart, corridor map or SIPOC analysis your team performed earlier and ask questions
STAKEHOLDERS – When working with a SIPOC, once you identify process inputs and outputs the next step is to:
Identify process scope
STAKEHOLDERS – Selection criteria for QAT members should include which of the following:
1. Technical competence
2. Teamwork
3. Creativity
STAKEHOLDERS – Begin a project Charter by:
Identifying your opportunity statement
Brainstorming
A guided group discussion for generating a list of ideas about a topic and for eliciting group involvement.
Non-Statistical Root Cause Analysis Tools
1. Selection Matrix
2. Multivoting
Non-Statistical Cause and Effect Tools
1. Fishbone Diagram
2. Five Whys
3. Current Reality Tree
4. Affinity Diagram
Mind Mapping
A tool that graphically shows what the brain does naturally.
Brain Writing
> 6 people write 3 ideas in 5 minutes.
> Brain writing gives everyone equal opportunity to participate and it enables all group members to think without any ‘blocking’.
Charette Procedure
> A group idea generating and prioritizing tool.
> Its strength is its ability to address several issues at once in a highly interactive group setting.
Current Reality Tree
A way of analyzing many system or organizational problems at once, and seeing whether they share common root causes.
Affinity Diagram
A tool for organizing observations, facts, ideas or data into categories.
5 M’s and 1 P
Spines of the fishbone diagram:
1. Machines
2. Methods
3. Materials
4. Measurements
5. “Mother Nature”
6. Personnel
RCA – A team has identified poor communication between shifts as a problem they want to solve. They decide to create a fishbone diagram and place “poor communication” as the ______________ of their fishbone diagram.
Head
RCA – Non-statistical root cause analysis tools are very useful for helping teams:
> Identify potential causes for further statistical analysis.
RCA – The brainstorming process involves clarifying your question or goal, capturing every idea, and finally:
Consolidate similar ideas
Brainstorming Principles
1. CLARIFY the question/goal
2. CAPTURE every idea
3. CONSOLIDATE similar ideas
RCA – A facilitator senses that some members of a brainstorming team are more introverted than others and may be “blocking”. Which of the following techniques would be most useful for eliciting fuller participation?
Brain Writing
RCA – The most important element in successful brainstorming is good:
Facilitation
QAT Initiation involves:
1. Identify QAT needs
2. Recruit Team members
3. Draft the QAT Charter
4. Secure buy-in and support
5. Prepare kick-off plan
QAT – Select team members that possess:
> Technical competence
> Teamwork
> Administrative skills
> Creativity
QAT – Quality Coach
Encourages accountability and provides supportive feedback.
QAT – Sponsor
Champions the team and assumes responsibility.
QAT – Process Owner
Initiates and approves business processes.
QAT – Creative Thinker
Brings fresh outside perspective to a QAT.
QAT – Scribe
Documents team progress so others can continue discussion.
QAT – Team Member
Applies expertise and shares knowledge.
QAT – Team Leader
Elicits involvement and builds consensus.
TSC – Stages of Team Development
1. Forming
2. Storming
3. Norming
4. Performing
5. Adjourning
6. Recognition
Groupthink
Describes a situation in which team members adhere to a particular norm or standard of behavior without questioning it.
Team Stages – Which stage of team evolution has these characteristics?
> Members move the team toward task completion.
> Relationship tension subsides
Performing
Team Stages – Which stage of team evolution has these characteristics?
> Mistakes are considered learning.
> The team needs to get a system in place to move forward.
Forming
Team Stages – The Adjourning stage of team evolution is typically characterized by conflict, competition and control.
False
Team Stages – ___________ includes fine-tuning. During this stage, team members:
> Accept the team
> Reconcile competing loyalties
> Accept a common focus
Norming
TSC – Which of the following should a team leader do to manage conflict in a team meeting?
1. Halt the conflict the instant it shows signs of becoming destructive.
2. Remain calm and neutral.
3. Call for a short, five minute break so everybody can cool off.
4. Reconvene the meeting, restore order, refer to ground rules (if applicable), and refocus the team on the goal.
TSC – Of the following, which are actions a team leader takes to facilitate a QAT?
> Elicit involvement of all team members.
> Manage conflict within the team.
> Oversee the preparation and presentation of the findings. (Team Structure – slide 37)
TSC – Meandering and unfocused conversations can happen in any meeting. When these occur, the successful team leader should:
> Remind the team of its mission.
> Continually direct the conversation back on track.
> Document any off-topic items. (Team Structure – slide 43)
TSC – Key issues related to a decision that team members need to examine include:
> Potential impact (to a functional area, to other projects, and to the business as a whole).
> Risks (related to missing a deadline for a decision).
> Relevant information from related (organizational) decisions.
LEADERSHIP – The benefits of supporting QDM as part of our FedEx culture include:
> Drive innovation
> Improve decision making
> Increase morale
> Inspire better teamwork (slide 9)
LEADERSHIP – At FedEx, QDM, the __________, and Customer Loyalty are the building blocks for our culture, leading to long-term business success.
Purple Promise (slide 15)
LEADERSHIP – Match the role tot he description of the quality responsibilities associated with it using drag and drop.
Leader – Clearly defines, documents, and embodies organizational quality ideals.
Manager – Incorporates organizational QDM Principles and processes into daily work practices, continuous improvement processes, and reward systems that ultimately impact your team members. (slide 28)
LEADERSHIP – Which QDM Principle is so critical to our success because it takes us out of our boundaries and prompts us to consider the larger FedEx picture as part of our decision-making process?
Quality Involves Teamwork! (slide 26)
5 Leadership Practices
1. Exemplify
2. Inspire
3. Challenge
4. Empower
5. Encourage (45)
LEADERSHIP – Which of the following are leadership practices ou can use to engage your team to use QDM?
1. Exemplify
2. Inspire
3. Challenge
4. Empower
5. Encourage (45)
LEADERSHIP – To lead QDM effectively, you must _______.
Empower (45)
LEADERSHIP – According to Deming, 90% or more of processes can be improved by modifying organizational systems rather than attempting to modify an individual employee’s performance.
True – Individuals work efficiently in an efficient system.
LEADERSHIP – What type of organizational structure can foster a silo mentality?
Vertical (54)
LEADERSHIP – Quality professionals are available for QDM support and consultation as necessary
True
LEADERSHIP – What QDM Leadership practice does this statement best represent? To lead you must have a vision on where you are going. And you must communicate that vision in vivid terms so others will want to follow you. In the case of QDM, that should be easy, because QDM is all about achieving success – organizational success for FedEx, and personal success for your people.
Inspire (47)
LEADERSHIP – Successful leadership can sometimes feel like a never-ending balancing act of tasks, responsibilities, and pressures. QDM enables you to achieve this balance by helping others to:
> Drive innovation
> Improve decision making
> Increase morale
> Inspire better teamwork (slide 9)
LEADERSHIP – At FedEx, which of the following are building blocks for our culture that lead to long-term business success?
> QDM
> the Purple Promise
> Customer Loyalty
are building blocks for our culture, leading to long-term business success. (15)
LEADERSHIP – FedEx’s 6 QDM Principles include:
1. Customers Define Quality – Strive to understand customer requirements and expectations.
2. Be Scientific – Base decisions on facts and data, not guesses or opinions.
3. Measure, Measure, Measure – Measure failures, measure variation, measure success.
4. Optimize Business Performance – Minimize unnecessary effort, time, and cost.
5. Quality Involves Teamwork – See work as a collaborative process.
6. View Failures as Opportunities – Seek the truth and end the blame game.
DATA – Which of the following are pitfalls of data collection?
> Generating too many numbers.
> Inadvertently collecting inaccurate, unreliable, or biased data.
> Never analyzing the data collected.
> Focusing on less important measures.
> Failing to follow through and improve a process even though the numbers tell you to do so.
DATA – _______ determines the degree to which individual or average measurements agree with an accepted standard or reference value.
> Data Accuracy – determines the degrees to which individual or average measurements agree with an accepted standard or reference value. (19)
Note that Data integrity determines whether the information being measured truly represents the desired characteristic.
DATA – Checksheet
> A structured, prepared form for collecting and analyzing data.
> Usually comprised of a list of items and an indication of how often each item occurs. (23)
DATA – Automatic Gauging
> Collects data at designated, periodic points in an automated process.
> The data acquired can then be used to further adjust or control the process.
> At FedEx, the “photo-eye” is an example of automatic gauging; a fast and efficient way to capture weight and dimension on packages. (37)
DATA – Coded Data
> A method of classifying or reducing data without significantly reducing accuracy.
> Coding involves transforming numbers or using abbreviations for long strings of data.
> Assigning a number that is cross-referenced to a shared meaning is a common example of coding.
DATA – What are 2 types of data collected at FedEx?
1. Continuous data – Measured; more powerful of the two.
2. Discrete data – Counted
DATA – The primary purpose of data collection plan is to help you:
Collect the correct data to address a business question.
DATA – Associate each description to the correct form of data:
> Words – Useful for expressing judgments, describing a sequence of actions, summarizing decisions and labeling. Best used for describing qualities rather than quantities.
> Numbers – Numbers facilitate measurement and comparison. They have an exact meaning, which makes them less subject to interpretation and an excellent way to describe something in terms that everyone can understand.
> Pictures – Illustrate spatial relationships, motion, and location. They can often capture sequence, patterns, and relationships better than words or numbers. (60)
DATA – In a typical data collection plan for root cause analysis project, the Ys represent causes and the Xs represent effects.
False (68)
DATA – Measurement Scales
1. Nominal – Measures data by name, category, number, or the presence or absence of an item. (48)
2. Ordinal – Measures by rank order only. Such rankings are not absolute but rather relative to each other. Other than rough order, no precise measurement is possible.
3. Interval – Measures by using equal intervals and comparing between pairs of values.
4. Ratio – Includes a 0 measurement that signifies the point at which the characteristic being measured vanishes (absolute zero.)
DATA – Of the following, which are critical factors to consider when choosing a method of data collection?
1. Business process cycle time over which to collect the data (e.g., per hour, day, shift, or batch)
2. Number of business cycles over which to collect data (e.g., weeks, months, seasonal cycles)
3. Type of data (e.g., cost, errors, or ratings)
4. Source of the data (e.g., system reports, observations, or surveys)
5. Cost to collect data (e.g., existing data or data requiring development)
6. Collector of the data (e.g., a team member, associate, or subject matter expert) (15)
DATA – SigmaXL Data Collection Plan template
As a customizable planning tool, a way of thinking through the data collection issues you are facing, and a way of detailing how you intend to reach your project’s goal.
ASSESSMENT – Process Management
Understanding the importance of process and process interaction within an organization.
ASSESSMENT – Process Map
One of the most commonly used process management tools at FedEx is the process map, which uses a flowchart to visually define the components of a process.
ASSESSMENT – Process components
> Inputs
> Sequences of actions
> Decision points
> Functional areas involved
> Outputs (13)
ASSESSMENT – Value Stream Map
> A way of seeing value-add and non value-add activities and how value gets added to a process as it evolves from the current state to the future state – by studying the flow of materials, time, and information that occurs as a process transforms inputs into outputs.
> Processing time or selected costs of each step may also be included in a value stream map. (35)
ASSESSMENT – What type of process map would you primarily use to show the interactions and hand-offs between stakeholders or functional areas?
Deployment Flowchart – Also referred to as cross-functional flowchart, is a detailed flowchart that shows the interactions and handoffs between stakeholders or functional areas. (32)
ASSESSMENT – What tool would you use to support global audiences with easily-translated narrative, rather than visual content?
Written Procedure –
> Provide step-by-step detail of a process and/or a series of sub-processes.
> Design and develop multi-purpose documentation for both process improvement and ongoing user reference and support. For example, using process documentation for a task-based job guide.
> Support global audiences with easily-translated narrative, rather than visual, content. (50)
ASSESSMENT – Value stream maps should only be created using drawing software?
False
ASSESSMENT – Which process maps are useful in identifying potential areas of waste?
Value Stream Maps – A way of seeing value-add and non value-add activities and how value gets added to a process as it evolves from the current state to the future state – by studying the flow of materials, time, and information that occurs as a process transforms inputs into outputs.
ASSESSMENT – Which process map helps you see how value gets added to a process as it evolves from the current state to the future state?
Value Stream Map – A way of seeing value-add and non value-add activities and how value gets added to a process as it evolves from the current state to the future state – by studying the flow of materials, time, and information that occurs as a process transforms inputs into outputs. (35)
ASSESSMENT – A flowchart should never have more than one swim lanes.
False (18)
ASSESSMENT – Brainstorming and multivoting goes hand-in-hand with what assessment and planning tool?
Selection Matrix
ASSESSMENT – What assessment and planning tool helps you see the solutions that result in “Quick Wins” versus solutions that take a long time to implement and produce very little results?
Benefit Effort Matrix (63) –
> Also called the impact effort matrix, is designed specifically for the purpose of deciding which of many suggested solutions to implement.
> It is a planning tool that helps you prioritize your solutions.
> Use the Benefit/Impact Effort matrix when you need to show logical connecting points between performance criteria and possible actions.
ASSESSMENT – Process Decision Program Chart
PDPC (77) –
> Developed to enable you to plan for the future while still in the developmental stage of problem-solution or product planning.
> A PDPC is also known as a chart for the prediction of serious accidents.
> Once the risk areas have been identified, countermeasures are developed to prevent or offset the problems.
ASSESSMENT – Driver Tree
> Builds understanding of a customer requirement by breaking down a general requirement into component factors that are measurable.
> These measurable factors are called Critical to Quality factors, or CTQs. As a result, driver trees are often called CTQ trees.
>Use a driver tree to:
1. Transform abstract customer requirements into concrete events and variables we can measure and act on.
2. Discover factors, early in an ABLE project, that can be used to measure performance against a customer requirement.
3. Improve the ongoing management of a business process by maintaining a tree of all the CTQs for that process.
4. Facilitate VOC translation.
ASSESSMENT – In a flowchart, what does a swim lane most often represent?
Area of responsibility
ASSESSMENT – Deployment Flowchart
> Also referred to as cross-functional flowchart, is a detailed flowchart that shows the interactions and handoffs between stakeholders or functional areas.
> Because deployment flowcharts identify the relationships between individuals or groups in addition to the process map, they are useful in identifying waste – like areas of inefficiency, duplication or unnecessary processing. (32)
ASSESSMENT – Decision Tree
> A decision tree helps you visualize and evaluate all your options, sort through them logically, calculate a risk factor or payout for each, and reach a reasoned conclusion.
> Use a decision tree to:
1. Decide between different solutions.
2. Analyze a complex decision that must be made in the course of daily work.
3. Visualize the potential decision points in a complex business process. (58)
ASSESSMENT – Affinity Diagram
> Allows a team to creatively generate a large number of ideas/issues, then organize and summarize natural groupings among them to understand the essence of a problem and break through to solutions.
> An affinity diagram can:
1. Add structure to large or complicated issues.
2. Break down complicated issues into easy-to-understand categories by sorting a large number of ideas quickly.
3. Help groups and teams gain agreement on issues or situations and preclude arguments. (53)
DOE
> Design of Experiments
> DOE is a carefully planned method of testing by controlling or manipulating inputs (X) and studying their individual and/or combined effects on outputs (Y).
> Enables you to conduct the right experiments (4)
ANOVA
> Analysis of Variance
> Once you have some data, you will need to analyze it to determine what actually occurred during your experiments. (5)
One-way ANOVA
A technique used to determine whether data from three or more populations from a single-factor experiment indicate that the population means are different.
DOE – Dependent Variable
> A variable representing the outcome of an experiment.
> The response is often referred to as the “output variable” or “response variable”. (12)
DOE – Independent Variable
> A variable that can contribute to the explanation of the outcome of an experiment.
> Also known as a “predictor variable”. (11)
TOC – Theory of Constraints
> To identify and remove constraints or bottlenecks, Theory of Constraints looks at an entire system.
> Systems are analogous to chains. Each system has a weakest link, or core constraint, that ultimately limits the success of the entire system.
> Strengthening anything but the weakest link does nothing to improve the strength of the whole system.
> Core constraints are often simple to understand, but difficult to change. They may be deeply embedded in the system and changing them can lead to other, localized impacts.
> Constraints can be difficult to resolve due to conflicting priorities, but using Theory of Constraints to identify the core constraint can create consensus to focus resources and drive everyone to systems thinking.

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