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RCR

With the context of rcr, stewardship primarily refers to:
The obligation to use resources available for research ethically in order to conduct the best research possible
Within the context of rcr, social responsibility primarily refers to:
The obligation to design technology or acquire information in ways that take into account what effects those actions may have on society
Which of the following most accurately describes U.S. federal policy related to rcr instruction?
Some federal agencies have rcr policies but they differ in terms of the particular format of training that is required
Within the context of rcr, compliance primarily refers to:
The obligation to follow specific directive, such as laws and regulations, that govern a research activity
Which of the following most accurately describes the main goal of rcr education and training?
To promote greater awareness of proper research practice and research ethics
Within the context to rcr, integrity primarily refers to:
Having a sincere commitment to upholding one’s word and adhering to ethical and professional standards
The view that there is a social contract between researchers and the public is most accurately described by stating that:
The public supports research in various ways and researchers have a corresponding obligation to avoid abusing the public’s trust
Which of the following is true regarding an acknowledgments section?
The contributions of technicians and other researchers are often listed in the acknowledgements section if they do not meet all of the criteria for authorship
Which author is normally responsible for sharing reprints of a publication with readers?
The corresponding author
Which of the following statements is true regarding authorship practices?
Different disciplines have different practices about who should be included as an author.
Which of the following is the primary criterion for authorship?
Having made a significant intellectual contribution to the work.
Which of the following statements is true regarding the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) guidelines?
Individuals who do not meet the criteria for authorship but who have made a noteworthy contribution are normally listed in the acknowledgments section.
Which of the following is a responsibility of each author?
Confirming that data have been accurately presented
Which of the following is an example of plagiarism?
Presenting someone else’s ideas or words and claiming them as one’s own
Which of the following most accurately describes the practice of ghost authorship?
It is a situation where the individual who wrote the manuscript is not listed as an author
Which of the following is true regarding authors who seek to publish the same content in multiple papers?
Using the same content in multiple papers is deceptive if it is not properly disclosed to journal editors or other relevant entities
What is the main function of a technology transfer office?
It helps researchers to commercialize their work
The most important factor determining whether a research collaboration will be successful is:
Whether there is ongoing communication about goals and responsibilities
What is the main function of the Bayl-Dole Act of 1980 as it relates to academic institutions?
It allows institutions to have control over the intellectual property from federally-funded research
Which of the following is a key reason why international collaborations can be challenging?
Language barriers and cultural differences among collaborators can complicate communication
Which of the following is true regarding academic-industry collaborations?
The industry sponsor typically owns the data from research that it funds
What is the most appropriate process for determining which journal a collaborative research team should submit their work to?
It should be discussed early on in the collaboration by the members of the research team.
Which of the following is true regarding industry-sponsored research?
Industry sponsors of research may seek to place restrictions on the disclosure of research results.
Which of the following statements is true regarding international research and U.S. regulations?
U.S. funded research is often governed by U.S. regulations no matter where the research takes place
Data ownership is typically determined by:
The type and source of funds used to support the project
A research collaboration can be enhanced by:
Discussing intellectual property issues while the collaboration is forming
Which of the following most accurately describes a conflict of commitment?
It occurs when outside activities interfere with obligations to one’s primary employer
Which of the following most accurately describes an institutional conflict of interest?
It occurs when an institution’s financial or non-financial interests could interfere with its research activities
Which of the following is true about the management of conflicts of interest?
Management plans are often created to reduce the impact of conflicts of interest rather than completely eliminating them.
If researchers allow their moral or other personal beliefs to influence their objectivity, this is most likely an example of:
A conflict of conscience
The entity that normally is supposed to determine whether an academic researcher’s conflict of interest can be managed is:
A conflict of interest committee
Which of the following is true about conflicts of interest?
Conflicts of interest increase the likelihood of bias
If a friendship with an applicant could interfere with a hiring decision, this is typically referred to as:
A personal conflict of interest
The main focus of NIH’s conflict of interest policy is:
Financial conflicts of interest
What are the three main goals of data lifecycle management?
Confidentiality, availability, and integrity
Which of the following is true regarding data analysis?
Data analysis methods should be specified in advance before a study begins
Which of the following is true regarding data acquisition?
Data acquisition should follow a detailed collection plan that is set in advance
Which of the following is true regarding data sharing and stewardship?
Researchers who receive federal funding may have to adhere to a data sharing requirement
What is the primary responsibility of oversight bodies such as IRB or an IACUC?
To detect compliance with regulatory requirements, including those relating to protecting research subjects
Which of the following most accurately describes data lifecycle management (DLM)?
It refers to the tools and processes for handling data during a research study and after it concludes
Which of the following is most likely to own the data resulting from a research project?
The institution where a federally-funded project takes place
Which of the following statements is true concerning data selection?
Establishing a data selection strategy prior to collecting data decreases the chance of a biased outcome.
Which of the following is true regarding the reporting of research results?
Clear specification of the methods and procedures used is essential
In the research context, the term validity most commonly refers to:
Whether operationalized terms actually measure what they purport to measure
Which of the following statements about mentoring is true?
Mentors can provide valuable advice to trainees regarding career decisions and contacts with leaders in their field of research
Which of the following most accurately describes good mentoring practice?
Encouraging trainees to receive mentoring from a collection of individuals
Which of the following most accurately describes the responsibilities of a trainee in the mentoring relationship?
The trainee must take an active role in the relationship and clearly communicate needs and expectations
What is the most appropriate course of action for a trainee who has a problem with a mentor?
After first attempting to communicate directly with the mentor, the trainee should seek counsel of a trusted senior person in the department or organization
The defining characteristic of a mentor is someone who:
Takes a sincere interest in the growth and development of a trainee
Which of the following is mostly likely to create a poor relationship between a mentor and a trainee?
A mentor who searches out trainees merely for the mentor’s own career advancement
Which of the following is most directly related to successful mentoring?
Someone who is committed to the professional development of the trainee
Which of the following statements most accurately describes the mentoring relationship?
Mentors teach trainees bout aspects of academic life that are not covered in textbooks
Which of the following statements is true regarding the responsibilities of reviewers?
Reviewers should identify the positive and negative aspects of a manuscript, and indicate where improvements are needed
Which of the following is true regarding the traditional peer review process:
Under single-blind review, the identity of the author is revealed to the reviewer.
A reviewer’s main responsibility is to:
Be professional and prompt
Which of the following is the most appropriate step to take if authors believe that their manuscript was reviewed unfairly?
the author can contact the editor with their concerns
The two main criteria that the National Science Foundation (NSF) uses to evaluate grant proposals are:
Intellectual merit and broader impact
Reviewers have a responsibility to promote ethical peer review by:
Preserving the confidentiality of the submission
The main reason that grant proposal reviewers with a conflict of interest should remove themselves from the review process is because:
Their removal lessens the chance that bias will affect the review process
Which of the following statements most accurately describes the review process for grant proposals?
Funding agencies usually have committees, often with external reviewers, that assess the quality of the proposal
Which of the following statements is true regarding the responsibilities of a reviewer?
A reviewer’s conflict of interest should be disclosed to the journal editor or grant agency
The main reason that the Royal Society of London developed the modern form of peer review was to:
Control the quality of published papers.
Which of the following is true regarding the U.S. Federal Research Misconduct Policy?
To have a misconduct finding, the action must have been committed intentionally, knowingly, or recklessly
If a researcher creates the idea for a project and is not listed in the preferred author order position on resulting publications, is this considered to be research misconduct under federal policy?
No; instead it is a type of authorship dispute
Which of the following is most likely to be considered plagiarism?
Using materials from a source without proper citation
Which of the following is the most effective strategy for preventing research misconduct?
Good mentoring
Which type of research misconduct most likely occurred if someone intentionally removes data points from the data set in order to generate a deceptive conclusion?
Falsification
According to U.S. Federal Research Misconduct Policy, which of the following is considered to be research misconduct?
Plagiarism
According to the U.S. Federal Research Misconduct Policy, fabrication involves:
Making up data or results and recording or reporting them
The typical first main phase in response to a research misconduct allegation is called:
The inquiry
Which of the following is true regarding research misconduct?
Federal funding agencies typically rely on an institution to make the initial response to an allegation of research misconduct
Which type of inappropriate practice mostly likely occurred if a researcher takes credit for someone else’s idea and does not acknowledge the original source?
Plagiarism
According to the U.S. Federal Research Misconduct Policy, falsification involves:
Manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data
In response to a research misconduct allegation, what is the next main phase that takes place after the inquiry if there is sufficient evidence to proceed?
The investigation
Paraphrasing another author’s paragraph by substituting one or two words in each sentence and then adding one citation to the author at the end of the paragraph:
May constitute plagiarism because the original material has not been sufficiently modified to constitute a proper paraphrase
An idea is most likely to represent “common knowledge” if:
It can be safely assumed that the readers and the author are both thoroughly familiar with the ideas and its source
Authors who reuse portions of text that have appeared in one of their earlier published papers run the risk of being accused by journal editors of:
Self-plagiarism
Which of the following situations is most likely to constitute an act of plagiarism?
Copying someone else’s text word-for-word without using quotation marks and adding a citation at the end of the material
Ethical writing and scholarship is based on an implicit contract between the author and readers, whereby reader assume that what they read is accurate, has been written by the author, and has:
Not been disseminated before unless noted otherwise
Which one of the following statements most accurately describes how plagiarism has been defined in this module?
Plagiarism applies not only to ideas that are found in print but also those that are communicated verbally
Proper paraphrasing of a sentence written by someone else may be accomplished by:
Using your own words and writing voice to express the idea conveyed in the sentence
When authors summarize the work of others, they typically should:
Provide a condensed (shorter) version of the original material
According to federal research misconduct policies, what is the maximum number of consecutive words that one can use before it is classified as an instance of plagiarism?
There is no official, federal standard for the number of consecutive words that can be used
Which of the following situations is most likely to constitute an instance of plagiarism?
Summarizing a published article in 2-3 distinct paragraphs and including this in a paper
Unless the subject matter is considered common knowledge, citations are necessary when writing about:
Ideas, methodologies, or data from other authors and also your own previously published ideas, methodologies, or data
The reuse of one’s previously published material in a new journal is most appropriate if:
The author informs all the relevant parties and obtains permission to do so

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