Recommended political strategy for education for all
The state of Abandon comprises of eighteen districts and sixty four municipalities. The Sierra Morena municipality is situated in the district of Kobo Hidalgo. The state of Abandon made several changes to its laws in order to comply with the rules of the International Monetary Fund in order to obtain low interest loans from it. It was forced to go the IMF route because of crushing external debts, which it was finding very difficult to repay. It had reduced expenditure on public services and diverted those funds to military expenditure.
As a result of these changes, several atrocities due to violation of human rights have transpired in the state of Abandon. The right to life which is the foremost of all the rights granted by the constitution as well as the American Convention has been violated in Sierra Morena. Based on the account of the violation of human rights situation in the State of Abandon, I prefer to offer the following conclusions and recommendations. The deterioration in the human rights situation had a devastating effect on the people.
The regulations of law 1004 changed the situation in the State of Abandon to a large extent. The people were deprived of the right to education due to the increased cost of education. Over crowded and remotely located schools deprived the children of the enjoyment of education. Insufficient teaching staff and infrastructure in schools, non availability of books and improper or lack of teaching aids served to discourage children. Lack of proper transportation facility to the schools which were distantly located from the community further disenchanted these hapless children.
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At times, the very life of these children was exposed to danger. In this manner the state of Abandon had adopted an educational policy that was a flagrant violation of the right to life set forth in Article 4 of the American Convention. The need of the hour is the reestablishment of proper schools in the state of Abandon, which will cater to the needs of the diverse community that comprises the populace of this country. Suspension of the girl students from the school stating that it is required under disciplinary action violates the right of non discrimination granted by the constitution.
A new paradigm shift in approach with respect to human rights, which can be adopted by the claimants in the individual appeals, is provided by those aspects of human rights petitions, which can be enforced on a political level through promotional, supervisory and monitoring work. The conclusion is that an employment of skilful advocacy based on well crafted claims that comprises of the essential ingredients of a justiciable case, is needed to expand legitimate judicial protection of economic, social, and cultural rights in the Americas.
If these jurisdictional issues are properly formulated and properly put up then social rights litigation becomes a distinct possibility at all levels. The requirements for this are: 1. A socioeconomic dimension that ensures equal access for all to quality education, which is to be achieved by preventing the occurrence of drop-outs; promoting student achievements, multiculturalism, multilingualism and protection and nurturing of vulnerable groups. 2.
The existence of a mechanism in institutions that permits the transformation of administrative and organizational arrangements with the objective of creating democratic environments and relations within classrooms, school, and the broader educational system. 3. The existence of an educational and curricular mechanism that concentrates on enhancing and establishing the development of cognitive and affective competencies that aid in the exercise of citizenship and these being such that they include both rights and duties.
This factor concerns itself with problematic issues such as the hidden curriculum, the development of democratic attitudes and values, and the development, practice, and evaluation of citizenship competencies. 4. The presence of a social dimension that has as its purpose the bringing together of schools and communities with the aim of providing opportunities for students to develop skills and attitudes that enable them to become proactive citizens. This requirement encompasses programs in citizenship education that call upon the active involvement of political parties, the media and civil society groups.
Within the confines of this framework, the Inter-American Council for Integral Development (CIDI) has to maneuver the exchange of ideas and cooperation toward integral and sustainable development. However, such development has to include efforts to overcome poverty within the framework of the general policy and priorities that have been established by the General Assembly, while at the same time, taking into cognizance the responsibilities and functions of the various organs of the OAS. CIDI buttresses the OAS’ role as the major forum for inter-American dialogue.
It also functions as a coordinating agent that helps in the exchange of experiences and information. It further, aids in bringing about joint action and mutual support among the various institutions of the member states. It brings about a promotion of the responsive and efficient mechanisms needed to strengthen horizontal cooperation. Moreover, it acts as a catalyst for mobilizing human, technical and financial resources. CIDI serves as a forum for inter-American dialogue, by fostering the formulation of policies and developing national and multilateral programs and projects.
It also does the work of valuing direct participation by communities; in order to solve the problems they face in their efforts to achieve sustainable development. It will also encourage the participation of the permanent observer states, and promote mechanisms to coordinate with cooperation agencies and international financial institutions. In respect of education the American Forum for Global Education conducted a conference from June 8-10, 2003 in this conference the recommendations were that there should be close cooperation with the UNESCO, UNDP AND WORLD BANK.
At the conference, representatives of multilateral institutions discussed their institutional logic and rationale for supporting democracy education. Organizational frameworks to enable governments to access multilateral support for national initiatives were reviewed. Based on these presentations, the NGO participants made the following recommendations: “1. Individual governments should include democracy education in the country framework and plans that they submit for multilateral funding; 2. Host governments should emphasize “process”, not content, e. g.there should be minority and stakeholder participation in curriculum development, school reform, etc. ;
3. Democracy education should be linked to the Education for All initiative and to broader strategies involving social and economic development (i. e. , human development); 4. There should be strategic plans that clearly define democracy education, target groups (formal schooling, informal adult education, etc. ) and delivery systems; 5. Strategies should include plans for bringing a project to scale, i. e. , taking it beyond smaller groups to the wider public;
6. Governments and NGOs should integrate evaluation into their democracy education program initiatives to assure that results of their programs demonstrably meet goals. ” The Regional Office of the UNESCO carried out a comparative assessment in 1997. Its findings were that in thirteen Latin American countries Cuba had the best results in languages and mathematics. Moreover, in this region it was the only country that had not availed loan from the IMF and was therefore not forced to adopt any reformative policies in the field of education.
This is a very important example of how international interference in domestic policies due to availing loans from the IMF and the World Bank adversely affect a nation. From this study it became clear that education policies should ensure that there is complete development of the students and not the mere enhancement of the coverage and efficiency of the system. Further, the purpose of educational systems is not the mere furtherance of economy, consumption or material progress but development of human potential.
The cultural diversity of Abandon has not been considered and accordingly, the reform in education has ignored the requirements of the various cultural groups that comprise this country . Moreover, the United Nations General Assembly presented an Item in which it discussed measures to be adopted by the States, the United Nations system and other intergovernmental organizations. For this purpose it segregated the recommendations on the basis of three categories as described in the sequel. First, at the International level: 1.
One of the main recommendations made was that there should be adoption of measures world wide that would increase the awareness of the importance of mother tongue and bilingual education. This was to be done especially at the primary and early secondary level in order to ensure successful scholarship and long term successful education. 2. Another important recommendation was that the international community should continue to promote bilingual and cross-cultural education programmes for indigenous and non-indigenous peoples and schools for girls and women’s literacy programmes and share good practices in this field.
3. Moreover UNESCO has been urged to identify education imparting institutions art various levels, which cater to indigenous peoples and at the same time complete satisfactorily their objectives. Such institutions are to be provided with technical and financial support in order to promote their work. Second, at the National level 4. It exhorted the members to ensure that education of the best possible quality was made available to the indigenous people.
Further, it such education should give prominence to factors such as “the mother tongue, bilingual and intercultural education, etc in all programmes of education for indigenous peoples. ” 5. Furthermore, in conformity with “the framework of Millennium Development Goals and the UNESCO Dakar Framework of Education for All”, member states have to adopt and enact such legislation as will serve to eradicate those national policies and practices that enhance the complications envisaged by indigenous children so that they can exercise their right to education. 6.
Moreover, it recommended that there should be greater knowledge in respect of the significance of incorporating native learning systems and knowledge in the formal and informal education being imparted to native people. The requirement for this is that the history, traditions, culture, rights, spirituality and worldviews of the native people should be part and parcel of their education. In addition, there has to be special emphasis on making pedagogues at all levels more indigenous-sensitive. Moreover, indigenous schools should be established in areas where indigenous peoples are in the majority.
States have to identify and establish teaching centres in accordance with the prevalent labour and academic conditions. 7. Finally, for the benefit of indigenous people, who are migratory in nature, it was declared that there should be established such educational practices as will permit them to avail all the benefits of a modern education. Third, in the case of organizations of Indigenous peoples 8. There should be establishment and support for schools and university-level institutions in collaboration with the relevant United Nations agencies.
The idea is that the result should be the emergence of books and programmes relevant to their culture and which further their growth. 9. Moreover, indigenous organizations should establish such information centres, archives and in situ museums, etc. , as will serve to educate non-indigenous people in this context . The reduction of expenditure in the educational sector has resulted in a drastic reduction in school attendance and thereby causing an increase in the illiteracy rate. According to the statistics available with the government, in 1997 there were three million children who were not attending school.
Further, the data provided by the UNESCO and the National Institute of Education, revealed that 37% of the children between the ages of 5 and 16 had never attended school. In the rural areas, the attendance of children in schools ranged from 18% to 20%. Such being the situation in respect of education in rural areas, it is highly paradoxical that the government has implemented Law 1004, in order to reduce the number of schools and also to make schools almost completely inaccessible to the rural populace. This misdeed grossly violates the provisions of the American Convention, which guarantees the enjoyment of education for all.
Hence, the government should initiate such measures as are necessary to reopen the community schools that it had closed. In the state of Abandon, the birth registration rate is very poor. This is due to the high costs involved in the registration procedure and due to the fact that many of the births take place at home because medical care and hospital care is beyond the reach of these poor families. Moreover the registration process is very complicated, thereby discouraging most people from registering births. Therefore, the government has to provide subsidized community hospitals to the people.
Next, the government has to simplify drastically the registration process. Moreover, the cost of registration has to be minimized. This will bring about proper registration of births. Finally, the government has to implement a mechanism by which it will be possible for registration to be regularized in cases where registration had not taken place. The political leaders of the state of Abandon should acknowledge that reduction of public service expenditure will result in gross violation of human rights of the indigenous communities. The Law 1004 of 1998 is ultra vires the provisions of the constitutional law.
As per the provisions of this law, many schools were closed, teaching staff were reduced and religious prayers were introduced into the schools. All these misdeeds were indulged in by the government on the basis of the registry of births data. This data does not represent the reality. Moreover, the schools became overcrowded after the implementation of this law causing deterioration in the health of the students. The closure of many schools resulted in the students having to travel very great distances by means of hazardous and expensive modes of transport.
Further, in order to obviate this expenditure the poor parents had decided to compel their children to stay in places near to these schools. This has automatically resulted in children being deprived of the much needed care and protection of their parents, thereby violating the provisions of the American Convention. Prior to 1998, when the community schools were in operation, the school children used to assist their parents in agricultural and harvesting activities because the school calendar was designed to account for this event. This was of great benefit to these poor families as agriculture was the main source of income for them.
Subsequent to the implementation of Law 1004, this help was no longer possible as there was no provision to declare a holiday during this season and also the great distance at which the school children were located from their homes, precluded any help from being rendered by these children. Furthermore, lack of proper infrastructure in these schools has made girls especially vulnerable to the lustful advances of the morally corrupt teachers. These teachers, in exchange for a chair or a note book demand sexual gratification from these minor girls.
The state has to protect minor children from harm. Moreover, the school authorities are lending support to the immoral teachers and not the victims of their lust. The state should have made very stringent laws to punish not only such teachers but also the school administration for vicarious liability and aiding and abetting the morally corrupt teachers. The apathy in the state of Abandon is so great that even the courts, when approached by the parents of these victims, are not taking positive steps to bring the culprits to book. In this manner justice is being denied to the poor people.
Further, the judge is evading his responsibility to convict the immoral teacher by stating that paternity cannot be determined, whereas by using the DNA test it is very much possible to identify the father of the baby. Hence, as per the requirements of the society especially the indigenous people for whom the constitution had made special provision, and also to mitigate the enormous trouble and expenditure that the people were being put to this ill conceived Law 1004 is to be repealed. Moreover, this law flagrantly violates all the international conventions on human rights.