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Research Methodology & Employees

The process of selection of the approach to be used for research is very crucial and it needs to be implemented and confirmed during the planning and evaluation stage of the research. There are varying schools of thought about the various methods of research that are used in contemporary academia. Throughout the years there have been many suggestions pertaining to different types of methods of research applied to varying fields which have applied by research professionals for the purpose of reaching their objectives and targets and provide support in the process of making informed and high quality decisions.

The research design includes the various methods of gathering data and also the different ways to calculate or analyze the data. The research design also aids in identifying the strategies of research which might be suitable for a selected approach. Nonetheless, the various methods of research have their own limitations that have to be clearly gauged and realized by researchers when they make decisions in selecting the research approach to be used (Easterby-Smith et al 2002). 1. Research Approach Mainly there are two types of research approaches these two approaches are quantitative research and qualitative research.

In this research project qualitative approach is used.

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Qualitative research typically involves questionnaires or surveys that are standardized and the interaction with the population is also in the same way. Qualitative research is mainly applied in scientific areas such as psychology and the methods are formed to ascertain the objectivity of the data as well as the application of that data to a wider population based on the sample and the reliability of the data. The qualitative approach will be the main focus of this dissertation. 2. Data Collection Procedures

There are two methods that are mainly used in the data collection procedures: • Primary Data • Secondary Data 2. 1 Primary Data Primary data is the data collected for the specific purpose of the current research and this data did not exist in the past; prior to the current research (Tull & Hawkins 1993). The survey research approach is used in this research project and questionnaires are developed for two companies. The sample size of this research is 50 and fifty people are contacted through emails. Questionnaires are mailed through emails and a list of open ended and close ended questions are designed for the respondents.

The sampling technique that is used in this research is convenience sampling. Microsoft and Wal-Mart are the two organizations that are selected for conducting this research and questionnaires are emailed to 50 employees of each company. 2. 2 Secondary Data The secondary data is collected through different books, articles, magazines, peer reviewed journals and etc. The data that is collected through secondary sources are has already been published and it actually exists prior to this research. This data was collected and presented for a different objective from the objectives and aims of the current research.

This means that the data will differ from what the researcher actually requires for his or her research. Availability of data can be considered as a major issue in collection of secondary data. However, secondary data can also be accessed quickly and saves the researcher a large amount of time. There are many sources of secondary data such as internal sources within a company that include reports by the sales force, internal customer databases, accounting and financial histories, other internal reports and in house consultants hired by the firm.

External sources of secondary data are larger in number and include libraries, the internet, newspapers, trade journals, and online journals, reports by government agencies, such as the labour statistics or census reports, and also trade reports. Furthermore, the secondary sources also include international sources which are crucial for large and multinational corporations and also companies involved in import and export of goods and services (Tull & Hawkins 1993). Chapter 4: Findings The findings of the primary research are based on the responses of individuals who completed the questionnaires.

A total of 50 questionnaires were emailed to the employees of Microsoft and Wal-Mart. Out of these 50 questionnaires only 4 people responded from both the organizations. The findings of the questionnaires were quite similar because both the organizations were large scale organization which emphasizes on effective management and human resources techniques. Two methods are mainly used in both the companies and these two methods are rating scale methods and management by objectives methods of performance appraisal.

Similarly, performance evaluations in both the companies are on monthly basis and both the organizations stresses a lot on performance evaluation. Although the respondents say that their companies spend a lot on performance appraisals but the weaknesses of both the organizations in performance appraisals are wide and varied. The employees of Wal-Mart reported biasness in the performance appraisals and they believe that performance appraisals are not designed in an appropriate manner.

The responses are same as explained in the Mathew effect that is employees are performing bad then employers would assume that they will continue their bad performance. However, employees of Microsoft believe that their organization is free from biasness and the responses of performance appraisals are evaluated in a non-biased manner. They are rewarded according to their performance and the employees of Microsoft consider that their HR department has prepared the performance appraisal in a proper manner. The final question of the questionnaire is the most crucial question and it is directly related with the topic of research.

The respondents from Microsoft believes that performance evaluations is directly proportional to their performance and it positively effects their performance because they can easily sort out what are their loop holes and how they can manage their general work load. Moreover, the respondents explained that the performance appraisal techniques that are used by Microsoft are viable and they are the true measure of performance. On the other hand employees of Wal-Mart believe that although their performance appraisal techniques are appropriate but they performance appraisal forms are not evaluated properly.

That is the reason why the respondents are not satisfied with the way the performance appraisal activities are conducted and they believe that performance appraisal won’t affect their performance in a positive way and they their performance actually declines with the activity of performance appraisals. A performance appraisal evaluates the employees and factors like his/her further compensation, retirement, termination, demotion are discussed in the performance evaluation. Employees are evaluated on the basis of performance appraisals and it is considered as an integral part of the total management system.

Different studies and research suggests that the performance of employees strengthens up with performance appraisals but it all depends on how the entire performance appraisal is designed (Sandler & Keefe 2005). The entire research paper depicts that performance of the employees boosts up if the performance evaluation is conducted in a proactive manner. A large consulting firm Towers Perrin released the survey which was actually conducted on 300 senior executives of midsize and large companies. Out of all the executives 98 percent said that the results of performance appraisals directly affect the merit raises (Grote 1996).

Similarly, secondary research suggests that performance appraisals help managers in becoming good coaches and mentors for their subordinates. Another classic example of performance appraisal is the phenomenon of pay performance. It evaluates the performance of employees and employees can enhance their performance through performance appraisals (Grote 2002). The effect of performance appraisal would be positive if employees and managers both take this activity seriously and they must believe that performance appraisals are an integral part of the organization (Bogardus 2004).

Employees can evaluate their performance and performance appraisal forces mangers and organization to focus on the issues of employees. That is the reason why employees expect a lot from their managers and organizations and these performance appraisals lift their performance. Employees can easily identify what are their flaws and what are their strengths (Pilbeam & Corbridge 2006). Similarly, they can plan their work related activities with the help of performance appraisals. Another important fact that must not be overlooked is that appraisers feel uncomfortable when they are involved in the role of judge.

A problem might exist in the performance appraisal systems because in certain situations ‘raters’ and ‘rates’ know each other. That is the reason why personal prejudice and biasness can play its role in performance appraisals. The results of this section might not be appropriate because only 4 people responded from both the organizations and we cannot check the correctness and validity of the secondary data that is the reasons why these two issues can be treated as a limitation of this research report. Chapter 5: Conclusion Thus we can say that performance appraisals are developed by organizations to identify the performance gap.

This gap is basically the shortfall in the expected performance and the actual results. Performance appraisals are beneficial both for the organizations and for the employees. It can enhance the working of employees and performance appraisal can motivate the employees to work for the betterment of their organization. The findings of this research suggests that employees must be motivated to build their own performance appraisal programs and since these programs would be developed by the employees themselves then the effect of performance appraisals on employees would be positive.

If it’s not designed in a proper manner than elements like biasness and prejudicial behaviour might develop in an organization. Performance appraisals are very important in organizational terms and that is the reason why performance appraisal forms and interviews must be carefully designed. Different appraising techniques might be used by organizations to judge their employees. Employees on other hand might consider this activity as a time consuming activity and it is possible that they might not involve in such appraisals and they would get de-motivated.

All these aspects demands upon how performance appraisals programs are designed and how employees benefit from them. The applications of this research are wide and varied and other organizations and researchers can benefit from the findings of this research. However, the shortcomings of this project are the time constraint present in this research. Similarly, the viability of secondary sources cannot be guaranteed and it is possible that employees of both the companies didn’t give appropriate answers to the questions.

Further research can be conducted on the ethical attributes of performance appraisals and what quantitative changes do performance appraisals bring in an organization. List of References Beatty, R. , Baird, L. , Scheiner, C. , & Shaw, D. (1995). Performance, Measurement, Management, and Appraisal Sourcebook. HRD Press. Berry, L. (2002). Employee Selection . Wadsworth Publishing. Bogardus, A. (2004). Human Resources JumpStart . Sybex. Calhoon, R. (1967). ‘Components of an effective appraisal system’ . Personal journal , 617-623. Dulewicz, V. (1989).

Assessment and selection in organizations: methods and practices for recruitment and appraisal. New York: John Wiley and Sons . Easterby-Smith et al, M. (2002). Management Research (2nd Edition ed. ). London: Sage Publications Ltd. Falcone, P. , & Sachs, R. (2007). Productive Performance Appraisals . AMACOM. Grote, D. (2005). Forced Ranking: Making Performance Management Work . Harvard Business School Press . Grote, D. (1996). The Complete Guide to Performance Appraisal. AMACOM. Grote, D. (2002). The Performance Appraisal Question and Answer Book: A Survival Guide for Managers.

AMACOM. Guerra-Lopez, I. (2008). Performance Evaluation: Proven Approaches for Improving Program and Organizational Performance . Jossey-Bass. Ilgen, D. , & Pulakos, E. (1999). The Changing Nature of Performance: Implications for Staffing, Motivation, and Development . Pfeiffer. Jones, R. (2008). HRM fundamentals . Tertiary Press. Kirkpatrick, D. (2006). Improving Employee Performance Through Appraisal and Coaching . AMACOM. Lee, M. , & Son, B. (1998). ‘The effects of appraisal review content on employees reaction and performance’ .

The international journal of human resource management . McKirchy, K. (1998). Powerful Performance Appraisals: How to Set Expectations and Work Together to Improve Performance . Career Press . Morrow, J. , Jackson, A. , Disch, J. , & Mood, D. (2006). Measurement And Evaluation in Human Performance . Human Kinetics Publishers. Murphy, K. , & Cleveland, J. (1995). Understanding Performance Appraisal: Social, Organizational, and Goal-Based Perspectives . Sage Publications. Paauwe, J. (2004). HRM and Performance: Achieving Long-Term Viability.

Oxford University Press. Pilbeam, S. , & Corbridge, M. (2006). People Resourcing: Contemporary Hrm in Practice . Financial Times/Prentice Hall. Sandler, C. , & Keefe, J. (2005). Performance Appraisals That Work: Features 150 Samples for Every Situation. Adams Media. Smither, J. (1998). Performance Appraisal: State of the Art in Practice . Pfeiffer. Swan, W. (1991). How to Do a Superior Performance Appraisal . Wiley. Tull, D. , & Hawkins, D. (1993). Marketing Research Measurement and Method. Macmillan Publishing Company.

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