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Resource and Development

Classification of Resources Pasts of Classification ingot Exhaustible Ownership Class Biotic Biotic Renewable Non-renewable Individual Community National International Example Flora and fauna Minerals, Soil, Forest, Water, Wind Fossil Fuel, Metals Private land, orchard Village Pond, Park River, Mines, International Ocean Territory starts after 200 km of national boundary Stage of Development Potential resources are yet to Potential wind energy source in be exploited deserts of India Developed Coal Mines, Oil wells Stock, potential can’t be Geothermal Power

Resource exploited because of lack of Hydrogen Fuel technology or capital Depletion of resources for satisfying the greed of few individuals. Accumulation of resources in few hands, Indiscriminate exploitation of resources has led to global ecological crises such as, global warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental pollution and land degradation. Sustainable development Sustainable economic development means ‘development should take place without damaging the environment, and development in the present should not compromise with the needs of the future generations.

ROI De Jeanine Earth Summit, 1992 In June 1992, more than 100 heads of states met in ROI De Jeanine in Brazil, for the first International Earth Summit. The Summit was convened for addressing urgent problems of environmental protection and socioeconomic development at the global level. The

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assembled leaders signed the Declaration on Global Climatic Change and Biological Diversity. The ROI Convention endorsed the global Forest Principles and adopted Agenda 21 for achieving Sustainable Development in the 21st century.

RESOURCE PLANNING Planning is the widely accepted strategy for Judicious use of sources. It has importance in a country like India, which has enormous diversity in the availability of resources. There are regions which are rich in certain types of resources but are deficient in some other resources. There are some regions which can be considered self sufficient in terms of the availability of resources and there are some regions which have acute shortage of some vital resources.

This calls for balanced resource planning at the national, state, regional and local levels. The availability of resources is a necessary condition for the development of any region, but mere availability of sources in the absence of corresponding changes in technology and institutions may hinder development. There are many regions in our country that are rich in resources but these are included in economically backward regions. On the contrary tanner are some regions wanly nave a poor resource ease out teen are economically developed.

Resource Planning in India Resource planning is a complex process which involves : (I) identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country. This involves surveying, mapping and qualitative and quantitative estimation ND measurement of the resources. (it) Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up for implementing resource development plans. (iii)Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans.

LAND UTILIZATION Land resources are used for the following purposes: 1 . Forests 2. Land not available for cultivation (a) Barren and waste land (b) Land put to non- agricultural uses, e. G. Buildings, roads, factories, etc. 3. Other uncultivated land (excluding fallow land) (a) Permanent pastures and grazing land, (b) Land under callousness tree crops groves (not included in net sown area), (c) Cultivable waste land (left uncultivated for more than 5 agricultural years). 4.

Fallow lands (a) Current fallow-(left without cultivation for one or less than one agricultural year), (b) Other than current fallow-(left uncultivated for the past 1 to 5 agricultural years). 5. Net sown area LAND USE PATTERN IN INDIA The use of land is determined both by physical factors such as topography, climate, soil types as well as human factors such as population density, technological capability and culture and traditions etc. Total geographical rear of India is 3. 8 million sq km Land use data, however, is available only for 93 per cent of the total area because the land use reporting for most of the north-east states except Assam has not been done fully. LAND RESOURCES Plain 43% Net Sown Area (NSA) of Plan Mountains Plateau 27% LAND DEGRADATION AND CONSERVATION MEASURES Degraded Land India 130 million hectares 28% Forest Degraded Area 56% Water Eroded Area 16% Affected by Saline & Alkaline Deposits.

Remedy of Land Degradation: Planting of Shelter Belt of Plants Control of Overgrazing Stabilization of sand dunes by growing thorny shushes Control of Mining Activity Proper Discharge of Industrial Effluents & Waste SOIL Factors Contributing to Soil Formation: Change in Temperature Actions of Running Water Actions of Wind and Glaciers Activities of Decomposer Classification of Soils in India: Alluvial Soils Property: Alluvial soils are very fertile.

Mostly these soils contain adequate proportion of potash, phosphoric acid and lime which are ideal for the growth of sugarcane, payday, wheat and other cereal and pulse crops. Due to its high fertility, regions of alluvial soils are intensively cultivated ND densely populated. Soils in the drier areas are more alkaline and can be productive after proper treatment and irrigation. Spread in India: These have been deposited by three important Himalayan river systems- the Indus, the Gangs and the Apparatus. These soils also extend in Restaurants and Gujarat through a narrow corridor.

Alluvial soil is also found in the eastern coastal plains particularly in the deltas of the Mohammad, the Goodyear, the Krishna and the Xavier rivers. Types of Alluvial Solo: Reaches AT ten river valley I. E. Near ten place AT ten Dread AT slope, ten soils are coarse. Such soils are more common in Piedmont plains such as Durra, Chose and Terra. Types as Per Age of Soil: Banger Old Alluvial Soil Cheddar New Alluvial Soil Black Soil (Recur Soil) Property: The black soils are made up of extremely fine I. E. Clayey material. They are well-known for their capacity to hold moisture.

In addition, they are rich in soil nutrients, such as calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime. These soils are generally poor in phosphoric contents. They develop deep cracks during hot weather, which helps in the proper aeration of the soil. These soils are sticky when wet and difficult to work on unless tilled immediately after the first shower or during the pre-monsoon period. Spread: This type of soil is typical of the Decca trap (Basalt) region spread over northwest Decca plateau and is made up of lava flows.

They cover the plateaus of Maharajah’s, Sarasota, The alluvial soil consists of various proportions of sand, silt and clay. As we move inland towards the river valleys, soil particles appear some what bigger in size. In the upper Malta, Madhya Pradesh and Chastiser and extend in the south east direction along the Goodyear and the Krishna valleys. Ideal Crop: Cotton hence another name black cotton soil. Red and Yellow Soils Property: These soils have red color due to diffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks. It looks yellow when it is found in hydrated form.

Spread: Parts of Arioso, Chastiser, southern parts of the middle Gangs plain and along the Piedmont zone of the Western Ghats. Literate Soil Property: Literate has been derived from the Latin word ‘later’ which means brick. The literate soil develops in areas with high temperature and heavy rainfall. This is the result of intense leaching due to heavy rain. Humus content of the soil is low because most of the micro organisms, particularly the decomposer, like cetera, get destroyed due to high temperature. Literate soils are suitable for cultivation with adequate doses of manures and fertilizers.

Spread: Karakas, Kraal, Tamil Nadia, Madhya Pradesh, and the hilly areas of Arioso and Assam. Crop: After adopting appropriate soil conservation techniques particularly in the hilly areas of Karakas, Kraal and Tamil Nadia, this soil is very useful for growing tea and coffee. Red literate soils in Tamil Nadia, Andorra Pradesh and Kraal are more suitable for crops like cashew nut. Arid Soils Arid soils range from red to brown in color. They are generally sandy in texture and saline in nature. In some areas the salt content is very high and common salt is obtained by evaporating the water.

Due to the dry climate, high temperature, evaporation is faster and the soil lacks humus and moisture. The lower horizons of the soil are occupied by Kanata because of the increasing calcium content downwards. The Kanata layer formations in the bottom horizons restrict the infiltration of water. After proper irrigation these soils become cultivable as has been in the case of western Restaurants. Forest Soils These soils are found in the hilly and mountainous areas where sufficient rain forests are available. The soils texture varies according to the mountain environment where they are formed.

They are loamy and silts in valley sides and coarse grained in the upper slopes. In the snow covered areas of Himalayas, these soils experience denudation and are acidic with low humus content. The soils found in the lower parts of the valleys particularly on the river terraces and alluvial fans are fertile. Solo Erosion Ana Solo conservation I en monumental AT ten Solo cover Ana consequent washing down is described as soil erosion. The processes of soil formation and erosion, go on simultaneously. Generally there is a balance between the two.

Causes of Soil Erosion: Human activities like deforestation, over-grazing, construction and mining. Defective methods of farming. Polluting in a wrong like up and down the slope forms channels makes way for quick flow of water. This leads to soil erosion. Way etc. Disturb this balance. Natural forces like wind, glacier and water lead to soil erosion. Sometimes water flows as a sheet over large areas down a slope. In such cases the top soil is washed away. This is known as sheet erosion. Wind blows loose soil off flat or sloping land known as wind erosion. Preventive Methods: Contour

Polluting:polluting along the contour lines can decelerate the flow of water down the slopes. Terrace Farming: Steps can be cut out on the slopes making terraces to restrict erosion. Western and central Himalayas have well developed terrace farming. Strip Cropping:Large fields can be divided into strips. Strips of grass are left to grow between the crops. This breaks up the force of the wind. Shelter Belts: Planting lines of trees to create shelter also works in a similar way. Rows of such These shelter belts have contributed significantly to the stabilization of sand dunes and in stabilizing the desert in western India.

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