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Review Ch 15-18

Water intended for human consumption is referred to as
Drinking Water
Unpolluted freshwater supplies are known as
potable water
The term used to indicate processes that remove chemicals and pathogens from water is
purified.
The amount of oxygen required to decompose organic matter is called
BOD
Which nutrient(s) stimulates algae and aquatic plant growth?
nitrates and phosphates
What is biochemical oxygen demand?
amount of oxygen required to decay a certain amount of organic matter
Eutrophication occurs when
nutrient increase causes excessive plant growth.
Water lost through the leaves of plants is called
Evapotransporation
The process by which the Earth’s water cleanses itself through solar evaporation, precipitation, and infiltration is called
hydrologic cycle
Which of the following is NOT a problem associated with groundwater mining?
loss of wildlife habitat
Which of the following is a source of groundwater pollution?
agricultural runoff
Which of the following is a source of groundwater contamination?
All of these are correct
agricultural products, septic tanks, and radioactive disposal sites .
Worldwide, what two agricultural practices result in contamination of water?
fertilizer and pesticide use
Most large urban areas depend on which of the following for their water supply?
groundwater
The upper surface of shallow groundwater is called a(n)
water table
The porous layer where water accumulates in the ground is called a(n)
aquifer
The major consumptive use of water in most parts of the world is for
agricultural use
Which of the following involves the removal of phosphorous and nitrogen from sewage?
tertiary sewage treatment
Which of the following removes larger particles from sewage by screening or settling?
primary sewage treatment
What two activities use the most water for a typical North American family of four?
lawns and toilets
In which of the following college campuses is a sustainability initiative to reduce water consumption not currently underway?
University of California at Berkeley
Which of these is an issue that commonly results in an international water dispute?
quotas and water allocation to different stakeholder groups
The vegetable basket of the United States in central California has what water problem?
groundwater depletion
Saltwater intrusion occurs when
groundwater pumped from wells along the coastline causes saline groundwater to move inland
Worldwide, there is a relationship between the price of water and the amount consumed as the price
increases and water use decreases
The greatest percentage of the Earth’s atmosphere is composed of
nitrogen
One of the ways in which Mexico City has improved air quality was to
to eliminate lead from gasoline, require catalytic converters on all automobiles, and to improve public transportation.
One group of compounds produced by humans that are minor components of greenhouse gas are collectively called
CFCs
Photochemical smog forms when _________ and ________ are trapped by a thermal inversion and form ozone.
hydrocarbons; oxides of nitrogen
Scrubbers, precipitators, and filters
reduce particulate pollution
What is the name given to the accumulation of acid-forming particles on a surface?
acid deposition
The amount of lead released into the atmosphere
has declined since the introduction of lead free gasoline
Releasing pollutants into the air does not get rid of them but only
dilutes and disperses them
Industrial dust and ash are considered
particulates
The most common source of carbon monoxide is from
vehicles
Why is carbon monoxide dangerous?
It binds with hemoglobin, reducing the blood’s oxygen carry-capacity
Which of these is listed by EPA as a criteria air pollutant?
carbon monoxide
Ground level ozone is
a significant source of air pollution and contributes to the formation of smog
The role of ozone in the atmosphere is to
shield the Earth from radiation from ultraviolet light
The management of municipal solid waste is directly affected by
All of these are correct.
economics, changes in technology, and citizen awareness and involvement.
Agricultural waste is the _____ most common form of waste.
second
Which of the following statements regarding the impact of landfills on water is correct?
Landfills should have 2 or more liners along with a leachate collection system above and between liners.
Waste prevention is also known as
source reduction
In which method of composting are compostables formed into long rows and aerated?
windrow composting
Which of the following is NOT a method of source reduction?
use of PCV valves
The major problem with recycling plastics is
the inability to mix plastics
The most immediate problem resulting from the increase in solid waste is
a shortage of space in landfills
The selection of a modern landfill site is based on
All of these are correct.
understanding groundwater geology, soil type, and sensitivity to local citizens’ concerns.
Future management of municipal solid waste will be an integrated approach involving
All of these are correct.
land filling, incineration, source reduction, and recycling
In a modern landfill, the water that leaches from the site
is pumped into a leachate treatment system.
The most common method of waste disposal is
burying in landfills.
Which of the following is a problem with solid waste disposal?
All of these are correct
cost, groundwater hazard, and maintaining air quality
In the U.S., “command and control” of governmental regulation began in the early 1970s with the creation of
the EPA.
CERCLA is also known as the
Superfund.
The preferred pollution prevention technique offered by the EPA is
source reduction.
Which of the following programs deals with the clean-up of hazardous waste sites?
Superfund
Which of the following is NOT an objective of CERCLA?
closing down the Superfund
By-products of industrial or business activities are referred to as
hazardous wastes
The “cradle-to-grave” concept is outlined in
RCRA
EPA considers two categories for determining hazardous wastes, which include
Both listed wastes and characteristic wastes are true.
Which term describes the level of exposure at which no test animals are affected?
threshold level
Which of the following is considered a persistent pollutant?
DDT
New environmentally friendly green bullets will soon be used by the U.S. Army because the old bullets
contained lead.
Which of the following hazardous waste management methods uses carbon absorption tanks?
Treatment
The two most common methods of hazardous waste disposal are
recycling and land disposal.
Which industry produces the most toxic and hazardous wastes?
chemical
Which of the following is an issue involved in setting regulations?
All of these are correct
determination of acute and chronic toxicity, identification of toxic and hazardous materials, and setting exposure limits
Which of the following terms describes the tendency of a substance to explode?
reactivity
Lead poisoning is an example of
chronic toxicity.
Which of the following is a type of hazardous waste disposal on land?
All of these are correct.
storage in underground caverns and salt mines, deep-well injection in porous geological formations, and storage in sanitary landfills
Which of the following is NOT part of the pollution prevention hierarchy?
discharge into rivers and streams
What is the simplest way to deal with hazardous wastes?
reduce, reuse, and recycle
The major producers of hazardous waste are
mining companies, power generating companies, and chemical and petrochemical industries.
Many states now ban the disposal of household computer screens in landfills and incinerators because
they contain large amounts of lead, cadmium, and mercury.
Which country leads the world in hazardous waste generation?
United States
The energy needed to drive the hydrologic cycle is provided by the sun.
True
Temperature change in water can alter the kinds and number of plants and animals.
True
Water is a solvent that can dissolve and carry substances, such as nutrients and domestic waste.
True
Water that infiltrates the soil and is stored underground is called runoff.
False
Agricultural runoff and mine drainage are examples of point sources of pollution
False
Thermal pollution occurs when industry returns heated water to its source.
True
Oxygen depletion can cause increased decomposition of organic matter
False
The largest consumptive use of water is for municipal drinking water.
False
Cooling ponds and cooling towers are methods of controlling thermal pollution.
True
Water diversion is part of the water-use planning process.
True
Lead and nitrogen compounds are believed to contribute to the destruction of ozone in the upper atmosphere
False
The stratosphere is a wind current that blows from west to east.
False
Atmospheric ozone shields the Earth from the harmful effects of ultraviolet light radiation.
True
Carbon dioxide is put into the atmosphere as a waste product of fossil fuel combustion
True
Carbon monoxide is produced when organic materials are incompletely burned
True
A large source of carbon monoxide is smoking tobacco.
False
As a waterbody becomes more acidic, many aquatic species fail to reproduce.
True
Acid rain is caused by the emission of chlorofluorocarbons into the atmosphere.
False
Scientists have agreed that human activity is causing the climate to get warmer
True
Ozone, when found close to the surface of the Earth, is a pollutant.
True
Unwanted sound or noise is considered to be a type of pollution.
True
There are six major sources of EPA Criteria Pollutants
True
The primary means of municipal solid waste disposal is incineration.
False
Recycle Bank encourages people to recycle through a points earning system where points can be redeemed at merchants like CVS.
True
An example of source reduction is making a product lightweight
True
One massive dose of a toxic substance is chronic toxicity while exposure to several small doses is acute toxicity.
False

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