The structure of the Martha social organization was based on various systems whose origin again was believed to be divine, It was Hereford, not changed since a long time and handed down undisturbed from father to son for generations, together. When these systems became hereditary, a new principle of stagnation was introduced in the society. 4. 1 Social Institutions: The social philosophy is based on the level of culture and the general outlook of that society. In the same way the social institutions like family, marriage, Hindu law and religion also Influenced and affected the position of women In that society.
During the period of Martha the system of joint family was in existence which had no liberal outlook towards women of that time. In this Joint family system marriages were contractual and arranged at an early age, the chances of incompatibility of marriage partners were very high. This was divided Into several divisions for the convenience of study as under: 1) Family 2) Marriage. 4. 2 Verna and Caste: The pattern of social classes In Hinduism Is called the “caste system. ” Basic caste Is called Verna, or “color. ” Subjects, or Jan, “birth, life, rank,” Is a traditional subdivision
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Caste is a largely static organization, it is exclusively social class and its membership is determined by the birth. Caste involved with particular customary restrictions and based on certain privileges. The word caste is derived from the Portuguese word cast. Meaning breed, race, or Kind. It was used first to denote the Hindu social classification on the Indian subcontinent. Although, this is the basic connotation of the word caste, it is used to describe in whole or in part social systems that emerged at various times in other parts of the world. 4. 2. Verna: The Verna system Is a social order of the people based on their type of work and livelihood activity. The four basic Varian or castes as they are also called are the Brahmins, Ashtrays, Visas and Shudders, among which the Brahmins hold the highest position, respect and authority whereas the Shudders are placed at the lowest rung and are looked down upon. This social grouping as per their superiority – Inferiority are: Brahmins-the priests also known as the twice-born; the Ashtrays ; warriors by profession; Visas-the traders and lastly Shudders the laborers.
These such as dietary habits and interaction with members of other Varian as well. Members belonging to a high Verna enjoy wealth and opportunities whereas those to a lower rank perform menial tasks. The works of Brahmins, Ashtrays, Visas, and Shudders are different, in harmony with the three powers of their born nature. The works of a Brahmins are peace; self-harmony, austerity, and purity; loving-forgiveness and righteousness; vision and wisdom and faith.
Ashtrays have: a heroic mind, inner fire, constancy, resourcefulness, courage in battle, generosity and noble leadership whereas Trade, agriculture and the rearing of cattle is the work of a Vastly. And the work of the Shudder is service. 4. 2. 2 caste: Generally, caste was organized with a chief and council acting in concerted authority. It was often united for the celebrations of certain religious festivals and cultural functions. The member of a caste further bounded by occupation and common customs relating particularly to marriage, food and the question of pollution.
Thus, food and drinks ware limited within a caste, means only members of the same caste used to eat together. Further, the caste means the collection of families or groups who bore a common home and claimed a common descent from a mythical ancestor, human or divine. The caste system in India is a unique social organization in the history of world. Although, this organization came into existence from the time immemorial, its origin is believed to be divine. According to the traditional theory of origin of caste system caste is as old as time and takes its earliest from in the Verna organization of the Vivid Age.
It was a simple four-Verna system during the Vivid period but it grew into a complex and elaborates system in the course of time. It is handed down undisturbed from father to his son. Therefore, it is neither changed nor eradicated. It became hereditary, stagnated stationary and lost its original elasticity with the passage of time. A) Meaning: The word “Caste” owes its origins to the Spanish word ‘Cast’ which means ‘breed, race, strain or a complex of hereditary qualities. ‘ The Portuguese applied this term to the classes of people in India, known by the name of ‘Sati. The English word ‘Caste’ is an adjustment of the original term ‘Cast. ‘ B) Caste Structure: The caste structure of the region, its relationship with land and its implications for local and State politics are important for the emergence and growth of co-operatives in a particular State. The Martha enjoy a decisive dominance in Maharajah’s as a whole. All other caste groups are too small compared to them. The largest second group in numbers is that of the ex-untouchable Marsh. Although politically conscious, being poor and landless, they do not pose any serious threat to the dominance of the Martha.
The Martha enjoy a high (though not the highest) ritual status. They are land owners and cultivators. Traditionally headman ship is most villages belonged to the Martha. The Martha are well spread out in all the districts throughout the state with the result that they dominate at all levels (village, talk, district and state) of the political system. The Martha took a leading part in tastes, the Martha are rooted in rural society and are not urban oriented. They neither are not absentee landowners nor are they shy of engaging in manual work including plugging the fields.
Although most Martha are landowners and cultivators, one comes across wide economic differentiation among them. It is significant to note that the Malls were not enthusiastic about the expansion of co- ops. The Malls are experts in irrigated farming, including sugarcane growing. They are also landowners and cultivators. They have shown innovation and enterprise in migrating to distant places in search of irrigated land for cultivation of sugarcane ND other cash crops. Muslims were no less divided by considerations of caste, race, tribe and status. The Iran’, Train, Afghan and Hindustan Muslim nobles were conscious of their own race.
Moreover, the Shari Muslims consisting of nobles, scholars and priests, looked down upon the calla Muslims or the lower caste Muslims. 4. 3 Communities: The social life under the Martha was based on the caste system whose origin was believed to be divine. It, therefore was not changed.. The caste system was handed down undisturbed from father to son for generations together. It became hereditary ND a new principle of stagnation was introduced in the social life of the Martha. That social structure became so stationary that it seemed beyond any change in near future.
The upper caste looked after the need of education but there was no competition from any other castes, therefore, there was no advancement in knowledge. The upper caste transmitted whatever they received from their preceptor. 4. 3. 1 Backbit Movement: Backbit is the Hindu concept of supreme love and devotion to the God. It is the most popular way of achieving salvation in the Life of Hindu people. As a matter of fact, eviction to God is meaningful only if it is blended with love towards all human beings and creatures in the world, without any bias or reservations.
Such devotion is bound to be reflected in the devotee’s personality radiating powerful and luminous divine energy. This Backbit or devotion leads to ecstasy and expels all forms of hate, envy, lust, greed and attracts only truth, goodness and righteousness. It is often observed that such devotion or Backbit culminates the devotees in dancing exuberantly with the name of God on their lips, which always attracted and inspired the observers towards them. Backbit movement was a movement of realization of God with in oneself and the union of the individual with God through the loving devotion of the devotee towards God.
This Backbit movement began in India before the rise of Suffix in Islam and its percolation in India. The origin of Backbit was traced in the Veda and the Pinheads. It was an established element in the post-vivid age and the Baggage movement. During this period Backbit was considered with Joana and Karma as paths to Salvation. There are two aspects of Backbit as one is the path of devotion based on service to God. The devotee throwing himself completely at the Eric of God, which is known as the path of surrendering to God.
The other one is the bond based on pure love and equality rather than service to God. This is exemplified in the legends of Vishnu and Baggage Purina’s. A) Important Saints of the Backbit Movement: this movement and contributed a lot towards the reforms of Hinduism to meet the Islamic ideological challenges. 1) Saint Deanery’s: He was the most revered and the prime saint of 12th century Maharajah’s. He came to prominence due to his commentary on Gait, the holy book of the Hinduism. Saint Deanery’s made equal stress on Danna, Karma and backbit of devotee towards his God as ways for attainment of God.
The most important contribution of Deanery’s inter alai to the backbit movement was that he wrote the Dinnerware in the language of common people, that is Amaranth. Had he written in Sanskrit, the message, which he wanted to give, would have not reached to each and every man of the state. 2) Manmade: Saint Dinnerware had several successors but Manmade was eminent among them. Manmade popularized the backbit movement throughout Maharajah’s as well as India DRP. Attractant says that the whole credit of changing mind of priest- ridden and ceremonial creed of people towards the love of God- goes to Manmade.
Manmade who was born in 1270 A. D in Maharajah’s preached intense love and devotion to God. He opposed to idol worship in religion and caste system in society. Manmade asserted that salvation could be achieved through backdoor devotion to God and not through any religious ritual. He often declared that a true devotee neither needed any pilgrimages nor fast or austerities, but he needed to concentrate his attention on the name of Hair I. E. God. Manmade traveled a lot in the northern parts of India and engaged himself in discussions with many saints of that period.
Naturally, his lowers belonged to all sections of society. 3) Ramadan: He contributed a lot to make the backbit movement popular in various parts of the country. Ramadan was born at Parlay, Allahabad and followed the philosophy of his guru Rumania. He popularized the worship of Ram as one of the incarnations of Vishnu. Means he believed in the philosophy of Passivism. Although Ramadan did not isolate himself from the traditional value in the society, he disregarded caste barriers and preached equality in society.
He encouraged common kitchen for people belonged to different castes and eating together without observing NY distance. Ramadan had chosen his followers from various sections of the society as Ravish was a cobbler, Kabuki was a weaver, Seen was a barber and Saddens was a butcher. Naturally, these saints sent the message of equality and Hindu-Muslim unity to each and every part of the country. 4) Kabuki: He was being one of the closest disciples of Ramadan, could learn pedant philosophy very well from him and involved himself in backbit movement more than any other saints.
He spread the message of backbit to his optimum possible among the people and became the propagator of Hindu- Muslim unity. He strongly criticized n idol worship and caste system in the society. Although, he was a great saint of backbit movement there is no certainty about his early life and his birth. 5) Kabuki: backbit movement there is no certainty about his early life and his birth. He emphasized on the one God and attaining salvation by way of love and devotion without distinction of caste, creed or any sect. He advocated that one should have a purity of character as pre condition for approaching God and attaining salvation.
He strongly denounced the caste system and believed in human equality, brotherhood, peace, good will and unity between Hindus and Muslim. 6) Madhya Chary: He was one of the learned saints of the backbit movement from southern part of India and traveled widely to every corner of the country for propagation of his philosophy. Madhya Chary profounder the philosophy of two beings as independent and depended beings I. E. Dualism. He says that God is the only omniscient and therefore, is independent being. The all others I. E. Matter and soul is dependent beings.
He further says that the individual soul is absolutely dependent on Brahmas and can be divided into three categories as viable to achieve final bliss, rotating the cycle of birth and death and sinner, viable for eternal hell. He emphasized on the importance of Guru in the attainment of salvation through love and backbit towards God. Madhya Chary had several books to his credit on Brahmas Sutra, Pianists, Baggage Gait and Inhabitant. Thus, Madhya Chary was the most influential saint of the backbit movement. B) Effect of Backbit Movement: As there were several backbit saints from various parts of India.
The scope of this movement was the whole of country. It spread each and every province of our country. This movement tried to achieve regeneration in Hinduism in order to make it enough strong to withstand the attack of Salamis and consequently conversion of Hindus to Salamis. The backbit movement also aimed at the cordiality and brotherhood between the Hindu and the Muslim communities. 1) Development of Local and Regional languages: The saints and philosophers involved in this movement were from various parts of the country and belong to various local or regional language background.
They used the local or mass language to propagate the message of the movement among the people. Therefore, the backbit movement created literature in the local language, which stimulated the development of local and regional languages. 2) Social Change: AY most all backbit saints professed the philosophy of social cordiality, friendliness, universal brotherhood and the unity of god. They also criticized and protested against the out dated and useless traditions, customs and systems like caste and intractability. Naturally, this led to reduce the austerity of these social evils and weakened them considerably.
Thus, the backbit movement paved the way of change in society. 3) Backbit Movement Stimulated change in religious thinking: When almost all saints began to attack on the orthodoxy of the religious, then the period of soul searching exercise began in the religions minded people. These saints also tried to align them with some other philosophers and sects other than their own traditional faith. As the backbit movement created stir in society and religion, it also enhanced the change in the approach of rulers then in India.
Due to backbit movement only, the rulers were forced to understand the religion of the masses for The war tradition of Maharajah’s involves an ocean of devotees undertaking an arduous Journey on foot to Panhandler where the appeals’ of Sans Djakarta and Sans Dinnerware meet on Caddish (Eleventh day of Hindu Lunar calendar), to worship Batavia. It is believed that Maharajah’s has witnessed this tradition for at least 800 years. Today, the phalli of Sans Djakarta starts from Dude, while Sans Dinnerware’s phalli starts from Land and the two reach Panhandler on caddish. The activities during the procession are aplenty.
The Panhandler War (tour of duty) is an annual pilgrimage undertaken by VITAL Beasts (devotees of Lord Vital or Vishnu) subscribing to the teachings and tenets of the BAGGAGE DHARMA in Maharajah’s. As part of long standing tradition, the Vital Beasts (devotees) undertake what is known as the WAR (pilgrimage). The WAR is a procession accompanying the PHALLI (palanquin) carrying the PADS (foot wear / replica of sandals of saints). During this long pilgrimage people collectively sing, dance, play, recite the praises of Lord Vital and reflect on the works of his regional devotee saints.
The nearly two week long Journey culminates on the eleventh day of the month of “Shaded” None-July). Annually hundreds of thousands of WARRIORS (those undertaking the WAR’) travel on foot to have a glimpse of Lord Vital by reaching the town of Panhandler on the banks of river Changeable adopting the teachings of the saints. The WAR lends a supremely distinct identity to Maharajah’s cultural horizon. Through the collective congregation of the VITAL BEASTS are carried forward the teachings of the BAGGAGE DHARMA. 4. 3. 3 suffix: Suffix is a common term used for Islamic mysticism.
The Suffix were very liberal in their religious outlook. They believed in the essential unity of all religions. They preached spirituality through music and doctrines that professed union with God. Suffix originated in Iran and found a congenial atmosphere in India under the Turkish rule. Their sense of piety, tolerance, sympathy, concept of equality and roundly attitude attracted many Hindus, mostly from lower classes, to Islam. Suffix saints such as Mounding Schist, Unmanning Allay, Freudian Ganja-e-Shaker were the pioneer Suffix who are still loved, respected and honored in India.
The Suffix were also influenced by the Christian and Buddhist monks regarding the establishment of their khans and drags. Khan the institutions (abode of Suffix) set up by the Suffix in northern India took Islam deeper into the countryside. Mammas (tombs) and Takes (resting places of Muslim saints) also became the centers for the propagation of Islamic ideas. These were patronized both by the aristocracy and the common people. The Suffix emphasized respect for all human beings. 4. 4 Marriage: This is the first institution created by the society which helped the society the most in the process of solicitation.
It is fundamental part of the family rather marriage only is responsible for the formation of family. It is universally agreed that without marriage there is no family. The family during the period of Martha formed of a consanguineous patriarchal group, recognizing patriarchal descent. It was a Joint family in which all members like brothers, even stepbrothers, sons, sisters, others elates like widowed aunts, their children and orphans lived together with father the eldest member at the head. In such family all decisions and circumstances went against the woman and she was proved insignificant.
Marriages in Joint family were the marrying parties. Consequently several unwanted and unwarranted events came up as , the members of the Joint family being together for generations, the ties of filial love or attachment about each other developed very strong, husbands used to be under the influence of their mothers, sisters and other members of the family rather than their wives. Newly married or young daughters-in-law were left to the mercy of their in-laws or other senior ladies in the family.
Naturally, without any alternatives, these young daughters-in-law became victims of the torture of their in-laws and committed suicides. Thus, the marriage, an important social institution under the Martha led the woman towards her end and proved the level of position of women during that period. Polygamy was an old social evil. It was confined not only to the Hindus but to Muslims as well. However, it did not become a common vice among the general population. Dowry system was prevalent . Position of women in any society depends upon two major factors as social philosophy and social institutions that developed. . 4. 1 Features of Marriage System: The marriage system during the Martha had some predominant and outstanding features which influenced and affected the position of women if they operated concomitantly, the effects were utterly disastrous. These features were as: 1) Dowry 2) Child Marriage 3) Polygamy 4) Restrictions on widow remarriage 5) Divorce. 1) Dowry: Marriages under the Martha were fixed by the families and elderly persons, the arties concerned were given no say about the choice of marriage partners.
The factors that mattered in the selection were the compatibility of horoscopes, family background, caste, suitability of gators and dowry. There are several references regarding dowry transactions during the Pesewa period. When the marriage malady like dowry was practiced and the brides or their parents were forced to pay such amount in the marriage , it highlighted the position of woman, which was not equal but lower to man in that society. 2) Child Marriage : This was another important feature of the marriage system under the Martha. T is aid that Hindu law makers and Dharma Shasta strongly recommended child marriages or pre-puberty marriages and advised that parents who failed to marry away their daughters in the pre-puberty age incurred a huge sin. Phases were the Switchman Brahmins, they considered themselves as the custodians of Hindu law and religion and paid strict attention towards the observance of the marriage laws. Phases even released prisoners on several occasions to enable them to marry their daughters in the pre-puberty age. Pesewa Basilar II had issued orders to all Brahmins to get their daughters married before the age of nine.
Generally, girls were married before the age often . Len certain unavoidable circus stances, when marriage of a girl was delayed, eleven, was considered the maximum limit of the marriageable age. If somebody could not marry his daughter within the age of eleven, he was ex – communicated or outcasts by the people. Although, there was an upper limit of the marriageable age of girls but there was no mention about the minimum age of marriage of male. There are a numerable instances of girls married at the age of 2 and 1/2 or areas of age.
But it is observed that five was the generally approved and en, life of such newly married girl was quite deplorable and full of miseries. 3) Polygamy: This was one more characteristic of marriage life of people under the Martha. Although, there was a ceiling on marriageable age of girls, there was no ceiling on the marriageable age of men. They were able to marry any number of times at any advanced age in life. It means men used to practice polygamy without any hesitation and nobody raised any objection on this system for a long. It is said that men could contract as many marriages as they desired.
Thus, Polygamy was practiced at every bevel, which indicated the position of woman during the period of Martha. 4) Prohibition of Widow Re -Marriage: This was one more indicator of the position of woman during the Martha period.. Society under the Martha did not raise even, the slightest objection to the re- marriage of men, but the same society did not offer the same freedom to woman even in case of exigency. Some British reports say that re-marriage of widow was permitted among the economically weaker sections and humbler castes but it was totally prohibited among the upper castes.
Widow re-marriage was allowed in the economically humbler class as well as whose husband was not heard for considerable period , but such woman was not permitted to re-marry before the prescribed period of waiting, which varied from five to twelve years. On the other hand, there was no such waiting period for males belonging to any caste or class. It is enough transparent to understand the position of woman of this period. 5) Divorce: This was also one of the important issues helped determine the position of woman in the society.
Although, divorce was sanctioned among lower castes, there were some castes who never liked to sanction divorce in their caste in order to compete tit Brahmins and claim some sort of higher ritual status. Brahmins never sanctioned divorce because marriage, they considered was a very sacred tie and thought it was irrevocable in any case. But the marriage was revoked when it was proved that the marriage was concluded hastily and without proper rites and rituals. 6) sati: Among the most heinous systems Indians continued since the ages, Sati system was one of them . T was in full swing during the Martha period when child widows were everywhere. The society under the Martha was neither sympathetic towards the widows nor towards the child widow. On the contrary it subjected them to several restrictions and increased their miseries and unhappiness which led them to burn themselves with the dead bodies of their husbands on the funeral pyre of their husband means committing sati. This signifies the outlook of the society towards the woman and their position in the society.
Sati was practiced among upper castes such as Brahmins, Martha and warrior classes during this period. There are a number of references of not only wives but also concubines and female slaves burnt themselves with the dead bodies of their master. The main reason behind committing sati by widows was that the status or the abject conditions to which the widows were reduced after the death of their husbands. Widows were pushed to such status that they tortured and separated from the main stream of life. Naturally, they took the painful decision of committing sati.
There are several evidences of the state of allowed to marry again , she was deprived of all her valuables and beauty by shaving her hair off and made her to remain for the rest of her life without being of any considerations and worse than a slave. This unbearable life condition caused her to test life and prefer to be burnt herself with the dead body of her husband. Thus, these evidences clearly indicated the position of woman during the Martha period. The traditional Indian family is a large kinship group commonly described as Joint family.
A Joint family is one in which two or more generation’s live under one roof or different roofs having a common hearth. All the members own the immovable property of the line in common. This family is generally patriarchal and patrimonial, that is, the father or the oldest male member is the head of the house and administrator of the property and the headship descends in the male line. . 5. 1 Family System during Martha Period: It has been the most useful and fundamental social institution the society has evolved ever.
It is the family who determines the structure of society it forms and moulds the character of its members. Family as a basic unit of the society performs four very indispensable functions as sexual, reproductive, economic and educational of these, the first and second satisfies basic biological and social needs of man and due to this reason family is considered as a fundamental social unit. These two basic functions are so interrelated each reinforce and enrich the satisfaction of other, Hereford, they are generally considered together.
The man and woman are equally sharing the responsibility while discharging the above four functions, even then the women for no reason was treated interior to man. Family during the period of Pesewa served as an excellent school for training the child in social etiquette’s like social strata, politeness, hierarchical calibration of action, inculcating virtues of self- discipline, self- sacrifice, obedience and service of elders and abidance by the precepts of religion, Although, these virtues were needed to anyone to possess them UT they were much more and harsh in case of girl child.
They inculcated in girl child utmost obedience to one’s elders and superiors and respectful acceptance of their authority, which they regard as the highest virtues essential for potential survival. They imbibed that the girls should not disrespect the wishes or orders of their elders as well as not to remonstrate against them even if they scolded or punished. It is very clear from these evidences that all bandages and barriers were entailed on the girl child only. 4. 5. 2 Status of Women: After taking into account all factors like social philosophy, social institutions and the
Hindu Law and religion prevailed during the Martha period, it appears that these factors affected and influenced the position of women unevenly and unequally. It was the middle rung of the society affected and suffered the most. Woman from the upper and rich classes enjoyed almost privileges and benefits because of the position and wealth of their husband, son or father. Although there was no education imparted to women, the upper class women were taught the art of reading and writing which led them to enjoy a particular position in public life and also led them to be in power for many years.
Women belonging to the middle class suffered the the lower class enjoyed. Generally, the middle class came from the high castes but their women could not enjoy the privileges of the rich while they could not get the concessions the law and customs offered to the lower castes. Naturally, women of this class sandwiched on every count. The prevailing custom of child marriage fettered their personality; the system of Joint family reduced them to a subservient position while the practices of polygamy, concubines, the denial of divorce and the prohibition of widow re-marriage brought them into precarious position.
These customs, practices and systems led them to be neglected totally by their husband and abandoned them on very trivial offences. Widows of this class who wanted to avoid the miserable widowhood, the forced celibacy, dependence on others and continuous humiliation committed sati honorably with the dead body of their husband otherwise led a very humdrum life till the last. 4. 5. Female Slavery: According to the information collected by the British officers regarding the system of slavery, the male slave was called Gulag and the female slave was called either Bataan or Junking. Female slaves were deployed and employed for house hold work as sweeping the floor, plastering it with cow dung or popularly known as mopping the floor, cleaning utensils, washing clothes, cleaning and cutting vegetables, grinding and pounding corn and making beds of their masters and mistresses.
As per the survey conducted by Brought, it seems that the female slaves of Rick people in general and female slaves employed by Sinai enjoyed a very easy day today life. The female slaves of Sinai said that their daily routine was to attend on the wives of Sinai and rub the feat of old and elderly people when they retired for rest. They were left free to follow any course of action as they deemed fit during the night. Generally, rich people and nobles used to retain female slaves for sexual pleasure.
Army officers, Prince and chiefs had so many female slaves in their courts; they trained in dancing, singing and recreational tactics and finally included them in their concubines. There were several female slaves, who were employed by the Government in their various departments as stables, department of elephants and camels, ammunition factories, department. The each department had general and specific duties which he female slaves were required to do them with some odd Jobs whenever required by the government.