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Science of Music Essay

However, even with my years of experience playing the clarinet don’t know much about how it came to be the Instrument with the sound It has today, The clarinet throughout the centuries changed and developed with small additions and large additions appending periodically throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth century.

These changes helped create the modern day clarinet family and all the different variations of clarinets Including the alto, bass, and contra-bass clarinets as well as a look Into some rare, also discussed Is how some great people that contributed to the development of the clarinet throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth century. The basic clarinet started out as an instrument called the calumets, which originated In France and spread to Germany (Rice 8. ). The name calumets Is French ND may be traced the Hotelier family, which Is a family that made many instruments in the woodwind family in the seventeenth century (Lawson 8).

The calumets is a basic clarinet without a register key, which means it’s only the lower octave of the clarinet (Johanna Christian Denned). The calumets first appears in Italian dictionaries as stemming from the word salaams In Latin which means “pipe or whistle”, the calumets was later in the

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beginning of the seventeenth century was identified as “a rustic pipe made from wheat stalk with a cut in its upper surface, [and] half a foot long” (Rice 10). It was often used in operas as a replacement for oboes In the eighteenth century, especially In Vienna (Lawson 20).

In It’s early life Calumet’s used a different style of reeds than clarinets called a “simple, idiots reed” that has been traced back into sixteenth century French dictionaries, and there is evidence that shows a possibility that idiots reeds were used on instruments dating back to even back the twelve century (turgid Encyclopedia. ). These Reeds have been traced back to Greece, Sardinia, and Palestine being used in some Jewish music in as early as the fifth or fourth century (Rice 2).

One big difference from the calumets and today’s clarinet is that the reed was on the upper side so the player could only use his or her lips to try to manipulate the sound or make articulations, another mall difference Is that It only played the lower register of the modern clarinet that can be played without the register key. An illustration of a calumets showing the basic keys and structure of the calumets in the 17th century is below.

The instrument was Improved and developed until they were many deferent sizes and types of calumets for example the quart calumets was transposed down a haulers in that the pitch was “a major second or a minor third apart form each other” showing how differently the calumets instrument was developed across Europe adapting to each countries style of music (Lawson 20). Calumet’s were the foundation that clarinets were based upon and were crucial in the development to the clarinet today because helped improve reeds and design the lower register for future use.

Then person credited with the great achievement of inventing of the clarinet, Johann Denned who lived from 1655-1707, played around with calumets until he invented the Baroque clarinet by adding two keys and adjusting some theatres of it (turgid Encyclopedia). Denned was born in Germany and his father made animal calls, which he learned from and applied that to instrument making Moan Christopher Denned). He became a master at making oboes, flutes, recorders, and bassoons and became famous for his skills Moan Christopher Denned) .

Then between 1690 and 1700 he worked on improving the calumets and invented the clarinet, which he then passed on to his two sons Moan Christopher Denned). Who then continued to evolve the clarinet, some of the Denned family clarinet creations are in museums today (Barrett). The clarinet greatly changed because of Denned and his family, he truly helped redesign the calumets to become much more like modern clarinet. How he did this is through many changes and adjustments.

One of them being that he added two keys that were vital in that it created “an instrument that could be overblown to produce its higher harmonics in addition to the lower register’s fundamental pitches, early clarinetists discovered that altissimo register notes could be produced by lifting the left hand index finger while the register key was depressed” meaning that if the clarinet was overblown in could play a few much Geiger notes but often sacrificing tone and sound quality (Barrett).

Some of the other differences between Dinner’s clarinet and the calumets updated with two keys later on is that the clarinet had a higher range and the key on the back was smaller as well as a register key to help the process of overflowing. He also shaped the bell to larger and had a bigger flare to improve sound projection (Barrett). He improved overflowing adding this “speaker key which [gives] the clarinet a larger register, the clarinet overblown at the twelfth interval… When] other instruments overblown at the octave” which creates overtones that affect the characteristics of the baroque clarinet’s special sound (Rice 8). The speaker key is on the baroque clarinet, not the modern day clarinet (Rice 8). The baroque clarinet was an instrument that was before more development in the clarinet’s history and was “usually made of European boxwood and sometimes of ivory, plum, ebony, or pear” which is different than the current day clarinet that is made of a combination of assorted woods, plastic, and metal (Barrett).

Another difference from his clarinet is the mouthpieces that had long Indo opening lengths of 40 mm compared to a modern clarinet of 30 to 34 mm 9 (Grabber). Denned looked closely at the Calumets in its sound, tone, tuning he noticed how it resembled the recorder but the calumets was harder to play because of the mouth piece being upside down so the embouchure and lip style was very difficult to achieve so he adapted the mouthpiece to be similar to a recorder so it would be easier to play and less designed it to have less sound resistance so the instrument had a better tone (Rice 10).

The Calumets was described by a accomplished his goal in making his new instrument, the Baroque clarinet, sound teeter Moan Christopher Denned). However, Denned wasn’t credited for inventing the clarinet until research done by Nickel Depressor’s “biographical account” of Denned twenty-five years after his death and even then Developed is known for his over exaggerations of craftsman’s accomplishments and he failed to fully describe how the baroque clarinet has transformed from the calumets (Rice 10). Nonetheless, Denned and his two sons are credited with the development from the calumets to first clarinet.

A very important person in the improvement of the clarinet was Mueller who upgraded the six keyed clarinet by replacing key pads made tit felt with leather stuffed with wool which made them more elastic and better for sound production (Barrett). He also made some improvements that I am truly grateful for which is the thumb rest that helps holds the clarinet as well as the metal screw for the ligature that does not rust (Barrett). I cannot imagine the difficulty of playing the clarinet without a thumb rest.

He is also responsible for the alto clarinet or tenor clarinet (Beanies 129). It was first invented in E flat but developed later into F pitched instruments in Germany and France and was used mostly for military bands (Beanies 29). It was used in military bands until it was mostly replaced with the saxophone, but is still used in “America, Italy, and Spain” (Beanies 123). However, Mauler’s greatest achievement was adding more keys for easier playing he made a thirteen-keyed clarinet that were better mathematically laid out with special metal so the tone was better 4.

He was a very important figure in creating today’s clarinet because he made a clarinet than can be played by many people because of its easier playing with the thumb placement that much easier fingering because of the many additions of keys (Barrett). Many different clarinets have come into being over the centuries and that is why the clarinet has the most members of its family out of the woodwinds and are fascinating to see how the different clarinets developed as well as see some of the designs of clarinets that were not established or used in today’s musical stage. In 1740 the clarinet diamond appeared in Germany and Vienna.

In the eighteenth century it was “a large-size clarinet, a major third below the C clarinet pitched in G… It had a body length of 69. 3 to 89 CM…. A curved wooden or brass barrel, and a stock- bell with a bulb shaped bell”(Rice SC. 2 10) . It was developed from having three keys to four and five between 1760 andante and then to having six to even fourteen keys in asses, but soon after the clarinet diamond died out and was rarely made after that (Rice SC. 2 11). Both versions of the instrument, the clarinet diamond and the alto clarinet, became popular after invented because of their warm and full tone.

One of those instruments is the G clarinet but it is unknown which is since they only differ by bell shaped. The G clarinet was not made a lot because “the player can play in the key of G on the other Clarinets [even though] the clarinet in G is the sweetest” nodding (Rice SC. 2 15). There is only one found key chart for the rare Clarinet dammar called Principles De Clarinet published in 1775 and is shown in the figures below. A clarinet, unlike the clarinet d’ amour in that is still very prevalent in today’s music world, is the bass clarinet.

Another important variation of the clarinet was the basset horn similar to the bass clarinet that was invented by G. Lott in 1775 in Paris (Wisped). The bass clarinet It “pitched in F (a major third lower than the A clarinet) the same mouthpiece” and Just like other lower clarinets it has a curved bell (Beanies 23). The basset horn was used instead of a bass clarinet for many years (Barrett). A composer named Strauss, who wrote it in almost every one of his operas, primarily used the basset horn and helped its popularity (Beanies 124).

The invention of the basset horn greatly impacted the ability of the modern-day bass clarinet. The bass clarinet was really developed from in the eighteenth century as a replacement for bassoons in military bands and continued to develop throughout the early eighteenth century until Adolph Sax from Belgium made a standard straight-bodied bass clarinet in 1838. His expertise helped him design it with surprising accurate tuned holes and a second register hole (Wisped). Dolphins bass clarinet is still the bass for today’s clarinet (Wisped).

Clarinets come in many shapes and sizes today and one size that can amaze and excite people, including myself, is the contrabass clarinet, which has a few variations in its self but most use the full contrabass of B flat that plays two full octaves below the normal clarinet (Beanies 130). This supra- treble registered instrument was invented in 1808 by Dumas of Sometimes and was first called the pathogen (Wisped). It was first created with swivel keys to make it possible to be able to play all the holes with the size of the instrument (Wisped Encyclopedia).

The pathogen was made out of maple-wood and had a barrel of brass as well as a brass bell (Wisped). The range corresponds with the modern tuba and that why it was rarely used because it was “superseded by the bass tuba” until it was future improved on but little is known about the changes and development that created the current day contrabass clarinet (Wisped). The contrabass clarinet is a massive “57 inches tall, resting on the ground through an adjustable peg…. It has 28. 5 millimeter bore, and its 97 millimeters long and 19 millimeters wide across the tip” (Beanies 130-131).

This large instrument has been used frequently in military bands and orchestras because of its deep notes at softer dynamics and is a clarinet that is an important member of the lowest clarinet family (Beanies 131). Mozart is mostly thought of as for his piano genius and orchestra pieces but ever sense I performed his Clarinet Concerto Rondo I have seen him as a composer that has a passion for the clarinet sound, which he demonstrated in many LOL pieces for the clarinet and the use of many different clarinets in his works.

His first experience with a clarinet has been speculated to of possibly of been during a time he was visiting London in 1764 and the first time he composed with the clarinet was in 1771 for an orchestra in Milan (Lawson SC. 2 14). When Mozart traveled to Anaheim, Germany the clarinet was already fully apart of the musical arena and many works had been written with the clarinet there (Lawson SC. 2 16). Mozart wrote letters to his father after repeated visits about the greatness of the woodwind section f oboes, clarinet, and flutes and how those instruments could greatly enhance a symphony.

His expressed his passion for clarinets throughout his Vienna in 1781-1787 (Lawson SC. 2 22). One of his works, a serenade, featured the rich sound qualities of the clarinet and basset horn, he did this by having the clarinet play mostly in its calumets range and the basset horn to play in its lower register to give it deep textures which started the foundation for Mozart solo works for the clarinet for many compositions to come (Lawson SC. 2 23). He appreciated the basset horn so long with many other works that highlighted the basset horns (Lawson SC. 23). Many years of appreciating the clarinet until near his death Mozart wrote the most popular clarinet solo work in year 1791 which is the Clarinet Concerto that is comprised of three works: Allegro, Adagio, and Rondo (Wisped). It was first intended for basset clarinets like the clarinet d’ amour it was a rare instrument so he transposed but note that the basset clarinet is not a basset horn as in the figures below, it was a clarinet with extra length and notes that can go lower than an A learner (Wisped).

This piece impacted the clarinet world and added a great work for clarinets to show a huge range of style and technique, because of this piece and many others that Mozart wrote, the clarinet is used and played as frequently as it is today. To summarize and finish the development of the clarinet, the clarinet continued to change. In the asses Barstool Frizz, an organ builder added the fourth and fifth keys (Barrett). This was applied to all clarinets, so that a chromatic styled music would be much easer to play (Barrett).

The basset horn and then bass clarinet ere invented around 1770 along with the A clarinet (Barrett) More advances to the clarinet include in 1785 the mouthpiece was made separate from the barrel for tuning which I have much experience with because when a clarinet is sharp the barrel is pulled out and when its flat the barrel is pushed in lengthening or shortening the sound waves to change the pitch (Barrett). In 1790 a trill key for the notes a and b was added but was only on English clarinets (Barrett). Around the same time the sixth key became more popular in clarinet models to play c sharp but it is unclear who first invented it (Barrett).

In 1806 Mueller came into the picture and improved the clarinet to meet composer’s high demands and added the keys to the thirteen-keyed clarinet (Barrett). Then in the early eighteen hundreds the contra-bass clarinet was invented followed by a metal clarinet (Barrett). The clarinet continues to grow and change and will continue to change for many years to come. Early on in the clarinet’s life it started out as the calumets and gradually was added too and manipulated until it transformed to the modern day clarinet.

Since the history of the clarinet is vast and many inventions to it has been added the seventeenth and eighteenth century seemed the acceptable to focus on for the most growth and development in Europe and discovered a few of the main human voices in progressing the clarinet Denned, Mueller, and Mozart. How the clarinet has grown to a basic ancient pipe is astounding and shows the creativity and mastery of instrument craftsmen. All these components of improvements, composed works, style, and the musical society all come together in shaping the clarinet’s past and it’s future. Work Cited Beanies, Anthony. Woodwind Instruments and Their History.

Science of Music

The clarinet throughout the centuries changed and developed with small additions and large additions appending periodically throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth century. These changes helped create the modern day clarinet family and all the different variations of clarinets including the alto, bass, and contra-bass clarinets as well as a look into some rare, also discussed is how some great people that contributed to the development of the clarinet throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth century. The basic clarinet started out as an instrument called the calumets, which originated in France and spread to Germany (Rice 8. . The name calumets is French ND may be traced the Hotelier family, which is a family that made many instruments in the woodwind family in the seventeenth century (Lawson 8). The calumets is a basic clarinet without a register key, which means it’s only the lower octave of the clarinet Nonhuman Christian Dinner). The calumets first appears in Italian dictionaries as stemming from the word salaams in Latin which means “pipe or whistle”, the calumets was later in the beginning of the seventeenth century was identified as “a rustic pipe made from wheat stalk with a cut in its upper surface, [and] half a

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foot long” (Rice 10).

It was often used in operas as a replacement for oboes in the eighteenth century, especially in Vienna (Lawson 20). In it’s early life Calumet’s used a different style of reeds than clarinets called a “simple, idiots reed” that has been traced back into sixteenth century French dictionaries, and there is evidence that shows a possibility that idiots reeds were used on instruments dating back to even back the twelve century (turgid Encyclopedia. ).

These Reeds have been traced back to Greece, Sardinia, and Palestine being used in some Jewish music in as early as the fifth or fourth century (Rice 2). One big difference from the calumets and today’s clarinet is that the reed was on the upper side so the player could only use his or her lips to try to manipulate the sound or make articulations, another main difference is that it only played the lower register of the modern clarinet that can be played without the register key.

An illustration of a calumets showing the basic keys and structure of the calumets in the 17th century is below. The instrument was improved and developed until they were many different sizes and types of calumets for example the quart calumets was transposed down a I newer was an Interesting Deterrence among ten French Ana German calumet’s in that the pitch was “a major second or a minor third apart form each other” showing how differently the calumets instrument was developed across Europe adapting to each countries style of music (Lawson 20).

Calumet’s were the foundation that clarinets were based upon and were crucial in the development to the clarinet today because helped improve reeds and design the lower register for future use. Then person credited with the great achievement of inventing of the clarinet, Johann Dinner who lived from 1655-1707, played around with calumets until he invented the Baroque clarinet by adding two keys and adjusting some features of it (turgid Encyclopedia). Dinner was born in Germany and his father made animal calls, which he learned from and applied that to instrument making Ionian Christopher Dinner).

He became a master at making oboes, flutes, recorders, and bassoons and became famous for his skills Ionian Christopher Dinner) . Then between 1690 and 1700 he worked on improving the calumets and invented the clarinet, which he then passed on to his two sons Ionian Christopher Dinner). Who then continued to evolve the clarinet, some of the Dinner family clarinet creations re in museums today (Barrett). The clarinet greatly changed because of Dinner and his family, he truly helped redesign the calumets to become much more like modern clarinet.

How he did this is through many changes and adjustments. One of them being that he added two keys that were vital in that it created “an instrument that could be overblown to produce its higher harmonics in addition to the lower register’s fundamental pitches, early clarinetists discovered that altissimo register notes could be produced by lifting the left hand index finger while the register key as depressed” meaning that if the clarinet was overblown in could play a few much higher notes but often sacrificing tone and sound quality (Barrett).

Some of the other differences between Dinner’s clarinet and the calumets updated with two keys later on is that the clarinet had a higher range and the key on the back was smaller as well as a register key to help the process of overflowing. He also shaped the bell to larger and had a bigger flare to improve sound projection (Barrett). He improved overflowing adding this “speaker key which [gives] the clarinet a larger register, the learner overblown at the twelfth interval… When] other instruments overblown at the octave” which creates overtones that affect the characteristics of the baroque clarinet’s special sound (Rice 8). The speaker key is on the baroque clarinet, not the modern day clarinet (Rice 8). The baroque clarinet was an instrument that was before more development in the clarinet’s history and was “usually made of European boxwood and sometimes of ivory, plum, ebony, or pear” which is different than the current day clarinet that is made of a combination of assorted woods, plastic, and metal (Barrett).

Another difference from his clarinet is the mouthpieces that had long window opening lengths of 40 mm compared to a modern clarinet of 30 to 34 mm 9 (Grabber). Dinner looked closely at the Calumets in its sound, tone, tuning he noticed how it resembled the recorder but the calumets was harder to play because of the mouth piece being upside down so the embouchure and lip style was very difficult to achieve so he adapted the mouthpiece to be similar to a recorder so it would be easier to play and less designed it to have less sound resistance so the instrument had a better tone (Rice 10).

The Calumets was described by a seventeenth century composer as “someone slang tongue tenet tent” so Dinner accomplished his goal in making his new instrument, the Baroque clarinet, sound better Ionian Christopher Dinner). However, Dinner wasn’t credited for inventing the clarinet until research done by Nickel Depressor’s “biographical account” of Dinner twenty-five years after his death and even then Developed is known for his over exaggerations of craftsman’s accomplishments and he failed to fully describe how the baroque clarinet has transformed from the calumets (Rice 10).

Nonetheless, Dinner and his two sons are credited with the development from the calumets to first clarinet. A very important person in the improvement of the clarinet was Mueller who upgraded the six keyed clarinet by replacing key pads made with felt with leather stuffed with wool which made them more elastic and better for sound production (Barrett). He also made some improvements that I am truly grateful for which is the thumb rest that helps holds the clarinet as well as the metal screw for the ligature that does not rust (Barrett). I cannot imagine the difficulty of playing he clarinet without a thumb rest.

He is also responsible for the alto clarinet or tenor clarinet (Beanies 129). It was first invented in E flat but developed later into F pitched instruments in Germany and France and was used mostly for military bands (Beanies 129). It was used in military bands until it was mostly replaced with the saxophone, but is still used in “America, Italy, and Spain” (Beanies 123). However, Mauler’s greatest achievement was adding more keys for easier playing he made a thirteen-keyed clarinet that were better mathematically laid out with special metal so the tone was deter 4.

He was a very important figure in creating today’s clarinet because he made a clarinet than can be played by many people because of its easier playing with the thumb placement that much easier fingering because of the many additions of keys (Barrett). Many different clarinets have come into being over the centuries and that is why the clarinet has the most members of its family out of the woodwinds and are fascinating to see how the different clarinets developed as well as see some of the designs of clarinets that were not established or used in today’s musical stage. In 740 the clarinet dammar appeared in Germany and Vienna.

In the eighteenth century it was “a large-size clarinet, a major third below the C clarinet pitched in G… It had a body length of 69. 3 to 89 CM…. A curved wooden or brass barrel, and a stock- bell with a bulb shaped bell”(Rice SC. 2 10) . It was developed from having three keys to four and five between 1760 andante and then to having six to even fourteen keys in asses, but soon after the clarinet dammar died out and was rarely made after that (Rice SC. 2 11). Both versions of the instrument, the clarinet dammar and the alto learner, became popular after invented because of their warm and full tone.

One of those instruments is the G clarinet but it is unknown which is since they only differ by bell shaped. The G clarinet was not made a lot because “the player can play in the key of G on the other Clarinets [even though] the clarinet in G is the sweetest” sounding (Rice SC. 2 15). There is only one found key chart for the rare Clarinet dammar called Principles De Clarinet published in 1775 and is shown in the figures below. A clarinet, unlike the clarinet d’ amour in that is still very prevalent in today’s sic world, is the bass clarinet.

Another important variation of the clarinet was the basset horn similar to the bass clarinet that was invented by G. Lott in 1775 in Paris (Wisped). The bass clarinet It “pitched in F (a major third lower than the A clarinet) Ana traditionally mace wit n ten same Odor as an A or B Nat clarinet Ana played Walt the same mouthpiece” and Just like other lower clarinets it has a curved bell (Beanies 123). The basset horn was used instead of a bass clarinet for many years (Barrett). A composer named Strauss, who wrote it in almost every one of his operas, primarily seed the basset horn and helped its popularity (Beanies 124).

The invention of the basset horn greatly impacted the ability of the modern-day bass clarinet. The bass clarinet was really developed from in the eighteenth century as a replacement for bassoons in military bands and continued to develop throughout the early eighteenth century until Adolph Sax from Belgium made a standard straight-bodied bass clarinet in 1838. His expertise helped him design it with surprising accurate tuned holes and a second register hole (Wisped). Adolph bass clarinet is still the ass for today’s clarinet (Wisped).

Clarinets come in many shapes and sizes today and one size that can amaze and excite people, including myself, is the contrabass clarinet, which has a few variations in its self but most use the full contrabass of B flat that plays two full octaves below the normal clarinet (Beanies 130). This supra- treble registered instrument was invented in 1808 by Dumas of Sometimes and was first called the pathogen (Wisped). It was first created with swivel keys to make it possible to be able to play all the holes with the size of the instrument (Wisped Encyclopedia).

The pathogen was made out of maple-wood and had a barrel of brass as well as a brass bell (Wisped). The range corresponds with the modern tuba and that why it was rarely used because it was “superseded by the bass tuba” until it was future improved on but little is known about the changes and development that created the current day contrabass clarinet (Wisped). The contrabass clarinet is a massive “57 inches tall, resting on the ground through an adjustable peg…. It has 28. 5 millimeter bore, and its 97 millimeters long and 19 millimeters wide across the tip” (Beanies 130-131).

This large instrument has been used frequently in military bands and orchestras because of its deep notes at softer dynamics and is a clarinet that is an important member of the lowest clarinet family (Beanies 131). Mozart is mostly thought of as for his piano genius and orchestra pieces but ever sense I performed his Clarinet Concerto Rondo I have seen him as a composer that has a passion for the clarinet sound, which he demonstrated in many solo pieces for the clarinet and the use of many different clarinets in his works.

His first experience with a clarinet has been speculated to of possibly of been during a mime he was visiting London in 1764 and the first time he composed with the clarinet was in 1771 for an orchestra in Milan (Lawson SC. 2 14). When Mozart traveled to Anaheim, Germany the clarinet was already fully apart of the musical arena and many works had been written with the clarinet there (Lawson SC. 2 16). Mozart wrote letters to his father after repeated visits about the greatness of the woodwind section of oboes, clarinet, and flutes and how those instruments could greatly enhance a symphony.

His expressed his passion for clarinets throughout his Vienna in 1781-1787 (Lawson SC. 2 22). One of his works, a serenade, featured the rich sound qualities of the clarinet and basset horn, he did this by having the clarinet play mostly in its calumets range and the basset horn to play in its lower register to give it deep textures which started the foundation for Mozart solo works for the clarinet for many compositions to come (Lawson SC. 2 23). He appreciated the basset horn so much Tanat en even wrote teen TTY-Twelve movements In a piece Tort tender Dataset morns along with many other works that highlighted the basset horns (Lawson SC. 23). Many years of appreciating the clarinet until near his death Mozart wrote the most popular clarinet solo work in year 1791 which is the Clarinet Concerto that is comprised of three works: Allegro, Adagio, and Rondo (Wisped). It was first intended for basset clarinets like the clarinet d’ amour it was a rare instrument so he transposed but note that the basset clarinet is not a basset horn as in the figures below, it was a clarinet with extra length and notes that can go lower than an A clarinet (Wisped).

This piece impacted the clarinet world and added a great work for clarinets to show a huge range of style and technique, because of this piece and any others that Mozart wrote, the clarinet is used and played as frequently as it is today. To summarize and finish the development of the clarinet, the clarinet continued to change. In the asses Barstool Frizz, an organ builder added the fourth and fifth keys (Barrett). This was applied to all clarinets, so that a chromatic styled music would be much easer to play (Barrett).

The basset horn and then bass clarinet were invented around 1770 along with the A clarinet (Barrett) More advances to the clarinet include in 1785 the mouthpiece was made separate from the barrel for inning which I have much experience with because when a clarinet is sharp the barrel is pulled out and when its flat the barrel is pushed in lengthening or shortening the sound waves to change the pitch (Barrett). In 1790 a trill key for the notes a and b was added but was only on English clarinets (Barrett).

Around the same time the sixth key became more popular in clarinet models to play c sharp but it is unclear who first invented it (Barrett). In 1806 Mueller came into the picture and improved the clarinet to meet composer’s high demands and added the keys to the thirteen-keyed clarinet (Barrett). Then in the early eighteen hundreds the contra-bass clarinet was invented followed by a metal clarinet (Barrett). The clarinet continues to grow and change and will continue to change for many years to come.

Early on in the clarinet’s life it started out as the calumets and gradually was added too and manipulated until it transformed to the modern day clarinet. Since the history of the clarinet is vast and many inventions to it has been added the seventeenth and eighteenth century seemed the acceptable to focus on for the most growth and development in Europe and discovered a few of the main human voices in regressing the clarinet Dinner, Mueller, and Mozart. How the clarinet has grown to a basic ancient pipe is astounding and shows the creativity and mastery of instrument craftsmen.

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