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Section 3 of History

Labor unions
represent unity among the working classes, bringing peolpe together across many professions to lobby for better rights, wages, and benefits.
what the labot unions to emerge?
Northern wages were generally higher than southern wages.

Mistreatment and unsafe working conditions brougth laboers skilled and unskilled, female, male, black white together in unions to try to improve things.

Tenements
poorly built, overcrowded housing where many immigrants lived, poorly built, overcrowded housing where many immigrants lived
sweatshop
factory where workers do piecework for poor pay and are prevented from forming unions
list some facts about working conditions that you learned about in this.
12 hours days six day a week
No vacation, sick leave, unemployment, reim bursement for injures.
675 each week killed in 1882
poor working conditions dirty unsafe, exposure to hazardy.
why do you think this chapter begins with the story of andrew carnegie? what did he do?
Andrew Carnegie was born in scotland in 1948. He was trying to make money for bussiness. He worked his way up to become private secretery to the local superintendent of the pennsylvania railroad.
innovations
new method; idea etc or a new idea created.
dividends
A sum of money divided amond stock holders.
resources
Raw material fields, forest and farms.
Manufacturing
Production and Processing
distrubution
shipping and transportation, delivery to customers.
Vertical integration
company taking over suppliers and distrubtors transportaion systems to gain total control over product.
horizontal integration
the merging of companies that make similar products.
what were andrew carnegie’s management and business strategies?
First, he continually searched for searched for ways to make better products more cheaply. He incorporated new machiner and techniques, such as accounting systems that enabled him to track precise costs.

Second, he attracted talented people by offering them stock in the company, and he encouraged competition among his assistants.

using the theory of social darwinism how did philosopher Herbert Spencer explain success and failure in business?
according to this doctrine, the marketplace should not be regulated let what will happen to happen to get involed
Social Darwinsm
Philosphoy of charles darwin theory of biological evolution. herbert spencer used theory to explain human.
Adpoted = sucess
Not Adopted = unsuccess
Philanthropist
A person who has a unselfish concern for human welfare and advancement, usually demonstrated by donations of money, property, or work to needy persons, by donation of institutions of learning and hospitals, and by generosity to other socially useful purposes.
robber barons
Modern day business people who allegedly engage in unethical business tactics and questionable stock market transactions to build large
who is a modern day pilanthropist? Robber Baron?
In todays world a philanthropist is Donald Trump. Chairmen eric schmidt of google. they violated pivacy practices.
why would rockefeller be considered both a robber baron and a philanthropist?
Rockefeller was a philanthropist because he gave away $500 million, estsablishing the rockefeller foundation, providing funds to found the university of chicago, and creating a medical institute that helped find a cure for yellow fever.

He played his worker low wages and then he drove his competitor out of business, he hinked prices.

How was John D. Rockefeller raised as a child?
Rockefeller’s Dad was a flashy peddler of phony cancer cures with the unique approach to raising kids.
According to social darwinism why were peolpe poor? Do americans still hold that opinion? Why or why not?
people were poor because they were poor because they were lazy and inferior. They deserved what they got.
Consolidation
The act or instance or bringing something together.
Merger
Complete control over its production, wages and prines.
trusts
confidence in the certainty of future payment for property goods recieved.
John D. Rockefeller
Rich industralist that owned standard oil company busness
Plan = trusts
what is one way of setting up a monopoly? who was able to do this
set up a holding company (just bought out stock of other companies)
J.P. morgan – U.S. steel
Rockefeller – standard oil company.
Why did the business boom by pass the south? What will help them be part of the boom?
The lacked capital, natural resources
after civil war poor didn’t want to risk money
RR owned primarily by north
Recovery= forestry and mining & in the tobacco furniture & textile in dustries offered hope.
capital
money for investment
why was the sherman antitrust act unsuccessful?
The act didn’t define “trust.”
companies felt pressure they reorganized to advoid persecution.
sherman antitrust act
It made it illegal to from a trust that inferferred with states or others countries.
How was Andrew Carnegie a philanthropist? Do you agree with carnegie’s defense of millionnaries? why or why not?
Donated 90% of the wealth for leading and the arts.

millionares make a’lot of money but still contribute to economy society so people should not dislike

I disagree

Do you think sweatshops still exist today? if so where?
sweatshops don’t exist in the U.S., but they do exist in south america and china.
arbitration
A method of setting disputes in which both sides submit their differnces to a mutually approved judge.
What are the similarites and difference between the national labor union anf the noble order of the knights of labor?
National Labor union: it was the first national labor federation in the U.S. in 1866.

Noble Order of the knights of labor: it was the first union to attempt to unionize women on a national scale in 1869.

African American & Labor Movement
African American: across the United States are more culturally diverse now that any other time in history with increasing numbers of immigrants from African nations, the Caribbean, Central America and other countries.

Labor Movement: The labor movement took its root long back in the colonial regime spanning between 1619 and 1776 plus.

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