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SOC 111 – Midterm

In the book How to Observe Morals and Manners, the institution of marriage is criticized as:
based on an assumption of the inferiority of women
Ugo’s promotion to regional manager at Sears with a higher salary and more prestige is an example of what type of vertical social mobility?
ascending
The intended purpose of desegregation of schools in the 1950s was to make education equal for everyone. What was not intended was that many racial minority teachers and principals lost their jobs. This unintended purpose was called a(n) ____________ function by functionalist theorist Talcott Parsons.
latent
Which of the following factors is needed to establish causality?
time order
In political speeches about the poor, those who are believed to deserve our assistance are termed the:
working poor
There are advantages and disadvantages to different interview techniques. What might be an advantage that structured interviews have over unstructured (open-ended) interviews?
It is easier to make careful tabulations and comparisons of answers
In Brazil, gender is determined by:
sexual practice
Government offices administering food stamps:
are not always optimally located for recipients
Which theorist argues that members of a class are grouped by their value in the commercial marketplace?
Weber
Which term refers to everything you own minus debts (such as a mortgage on your home and credit card debt)?
wealth
Which of the following is the best example of a correlation?
People with higher levels of income tend to enjoy better overall health
Harold Garfinkel developed an approach to studying human interaction that focused on how people produce (and maintain) a mutually shared social order. This method was called:
ethnomethodology
Many people believe sex to be an either-or situation (either male or female), but sociologists believe natural sex is:
more of an ideal than an absolute
According to Goffman, the main goal of impression management is to:
save face
A sociologist studying minor children, pregnant women, or inmates must get approval, as these groups are known as:
protected populations
What group sells its labor to the bourgeoisie in order to receive wages?
proletariat
What does reflexivity mean with regard to social research?
when researchers are aware of their role in, and their potential effect on, the behavior of the people they study
Race, birth order, generational cohort, sex, and parental wealth are key sociological variables that are said to resist fixed effects because they:
are relatively stable characteristics of an individual
Research questions such as why fairy tales often begin with a mother’s death are an example of the analysis of media content stemming from Gramsci’s work and known as:
textual analysis
When an elementary school student is labeled as the “class clown” by his teacher, and then adopts the persona and lives up to others’ expectations by acting silly, the class clown label has become a:
stigma
Although a binary sex system imposes order in the world and helps us make sense of a complicated mass of populations, it also:
limits our ability to accept difference
A general rule found in research, known as “no cycles of four” within two romantic heterosexual couples, is that people rarely date the ex-partner of their own ex-partner’s new boy- or girlfriend. What explanation is given for this finding?
The replaced exes don’t want to lose social status and be seen as “leftovers”
According to Becker, why do marijuana smokers enjoy using the drug?
They engage in a social process of learning to define the experience as fun and pleasurable
The examples of more and more people bowling and eating alone are used to highlight a more general trend involving:
civic disengagement and a decline in social capital
John Gray, author of Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus (1992), takes the position that the different temperaments, emotions, and languages of males and females are rooted in:
inborn differences
In the United States, six major companies, including Disney and Time Warner, own slightly more than ____________ percent of the media.
90
The example of how real estate agents earn money by contractually maintaining or creating distance or contact between potential buyers and sellers highlights which of the following?
structural holes
Which U.S. president was responsible for the War on Poverty and programs like Head Start and Job Corps?
Lyndon Johnson
What did the Bush administration and the group True Love Waits advocate for in teens regarding their sexuality?
virginity pledge
The word culture derives from the Latin word colere, which means:
to cultivate
A society characterized by a high degree of sameness among the individual participants, in which participants perform largely the same functions, has:
mechanical solidarity
According to Goffman, the esteem in which an individual is held by others is known as:
face
If a sociologist studies one high school in a study of the effectiveness of its Parent-Teacher Association, he or she is using which of the following research methods?
a case study
The effect of globalization has been to bifurcate labor into:
high skilled and low skilled
If a field researcher cannot reveal that a study is being done for fear that this revelation might significantly affect the social processes being studied, he or she is finding out that:
it is sometimes difficult to follow the norms of voluntary participation and informed consent.
The definition of relative poverty takes into account which important factor when determining poverty based on a percentage of median income?
location
According to Goffman, we all try to make good impressions on others and we actively work to ensure that others believe they are doing the same. He calls this:
impression management
A double-blind study means that:
neither the subjects nor the researchers know who is in the experimental group or the control group.
Which of the following scenarios involves the use of peer pressure?
A student decides to go out for drinks after her friends make her feel guilty for studying too much.
What is one fundamental change that critics argue is necessary for reforming the poverty threshold calculation?
reformulating it from scratch every few years to adjust for changes in the cost of living
An economist surveying lottery winners found that people who had zero earnings and who were not in the workforce before winning:
increased their commitment to work
The movement between different positions within a system of social stratification in any given society is called ____________ mobility.
social
A statistical technique called individual fixed effects is sometimes used in the social sciences. This technique involves:
comparing a particular outcome across time as some factor changes.
In sociology’s “cousin,” psychology, the focus is on the individual. In sociology, the focus is above and beyond the individual, on group-level dynamics and social structures. This is known as:
supra-individual
According to data presented in Chapter 3, by 1964, ____________ percent of U.S. households had a television set.
92
According to George Herbert Mead’s stages of development, children learn to recognize an other through:
imitation
The functionalist perspective on deviance argues that deviance:
is necessary for a society’s survival
Factors that affect the relationship between an independent and a dependent variable are known as:
moderating variables
A sociologist finds a strong relationship between education and income. If he only assumes that the amount of education people receive directly causes them to earn a certain income, and not that a family’s income can determine educational attainment, he is forgetting to consider:
reverse causality
Low culture, such as hip-hop music, is also known as:
pop culture

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