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SOC-210: Chapter 4 Questions

A
Mead would probably argue that if your four-year-old daughter picks her nose and keeps pulling up her dress while you are out at a fancy restaurant, it is because:

a. she has not internalized the generalized other.
b. she does not have good manners.
c. she has not developed an I.
d. she has developed a sense of the other.

A
Sandra’s boss asked her to work this weekend, but Sandra feels obligated to attend a family reunion and she has to study for an exam. She is having trouble deciding which “activity” to let go. Sandra is experiencing:

a. role conflict.
b. status inconsistency.
c. role strain.
d. status incompatibility.

C
In managing impressions, people rarely challenge the credentials of an actor, even when they suspect that a false impression is being created. Which of the following reasons do NOT explain this tendency?

a. All participants shoulder a common responsibility to maintain another’s face.
b. When actors “lose face,” the discredited performance is uncomfortable for everyone.
c. People feel sorry for others who cannot “pull off” false impressions.
d. There is an implicit bargaining among actors not to question the performances other people offer.

C
Saying “hello” when answering the telephone signals the start of an encounter in the first bracket and is known to dramaturgists as:

a. act one.
b. the monologue.
c. the opening.
d. the pre-show.

B
The sociological significance of roles is that they:

a. dictate the reality of a situation.
b. lay out what is expected of people.
c. come with clearly-defined expectations.
d. are identical from one setting to the next.

D
____________ refers to a social position while ____________ designates socially expected behavior.

a. Role; class
b. Class; status
c. Role; status
d. Status; role

C
In terms of how we feel about ourselves, Charles Horton Cooley would argue all of the following to be true EXCEPT:

a. If we imagine others think we’re fat, even if they don’t, it will still affect the way we feel about ourselves.
b. Society provides us a “mirror” in which we can observe the reactions of others to our own behavior.
c. We are affected more by how people react to our behavior than by how we interpret their reactions.
d. Our interpretations of how others see us are more important than the reality of how others see us.

D
Venus Williams is one of the top women’s tennis players in the world. This status overrides all of her other statuses and is known as her:

a. ascribed status.
b. achieved status.
c. status set.
d. master status.

C
If we place nature and nurture at opposite ends on a continuum, most sociologists would fall toward the nurture end of the continuum. Which statement best explains this tendency?

a. Sociologists focus on, and as a result give primary weight, to the social environment in explaining how people think, feel, and behave.
b. Sociologists believe humans are born as blank slates, and that the social environment trumps nature.
c. Sociologists believe that our genetic makeup really has very little to do with who we become in life.
d. Sociologists believe there is a complex relationship between heredity and the environment, and that we need to give equal weight to both.

D
A good deal of impression management can be said to involve “teamwork.” Which of the following is NOT an example of teamwork?

a. Parents collaborating to prevent children knowing about their quarrels.
b. Professors who loathe each other take care to hide this fact from their students.
c. Political campaigners and staff who radiate a common air of confidence about the latest poll results.
d. Pedestrians on a street who gather to watch someone jump from a building.

B
Two young men are on an elevator together. After briefly acknowledging each other’s presence, they “politely ignore” each other for the remainder of the ride. Goffman would refer to this behavior as an example of:

a. backstage behavior.
b. civic inattention.
c. an opening signal.
d. a given-off gesture.

C
According to Goffman, we all try to make good impressions on others, and we actively work to ensure that others believe that they are doing the same. He calls this:

a. resocialization.
b. the generalized other.
c. impression management.
d. controlling one’s environment.

B
Sociologists view socialization as a lifelong process that begins:

a. when a child can distinguish the “I” from “me.”
b. when a child is born.
c. when a child is still in the womb.
d. when a child internalizes the norms and values of society.

A
According to research by Kohn and Schooler (1983) and Laureau (2002), parents of different social classes socialize their children differently. Which of the following statements best describes these differences?

a. Middle-class parents are more likely to stress independence and self-direction; working-class parents are more likely to instill respect for authority.
b. Middle-class kids have more opportunity to “do what they want”; working-class kids are involved in more “structured” activities.
c. Middle-class parents value obedience over independent thinking; working-class kids are taught to use logic and reason to support their choices.
d. Working-class parents are more likely to use “time-outs” as a form of punishment; middle-class parents are more likely to use spanking as a form of punishment.

C
The story of the abused child named Anna teaches lessons about the importance of which of the following influences on human development?

a. money
b. proper hygiene
c. human interaction
d. healthy nutrition

D
Which of the following would be the best example of a total institution?

a. a Boy Scout troop
b. a political party
c. a sports team
d. a convent

D
A single mother who is experiencing incompatibility within her role, such as dealing with sleep deprivation and spending quality time with her children, may be experiencing which of the following?

a. peer pressure
b. resocialization
c. role conflict
d. role strain

B
According to Goffman, the main goal of impression management is to:

a. create an alter ego.
b. save face.
c. fool others.
d. control ourself.

B
The process by which people internalize the values, beliefs, and norms required to become functioning members of a given society is known as:

a. education.
b. socialization.
c. dramaturgy.
d. ethnomethodology.

C
Today’s assumption that childhood represents a distinct phase in the life course stands in sharp contrast to notions of children as “little adults” popular in preindustrial times. This example highlights:

a. how children have redefined their status over the years.
b. how children today are different from children in the past.
c. how our notions of childhood are socially constructed.
d. how children’s views of themselves have changed over time.

A
A recognizable social position that an individual occupies, such as “student” or “professor,” is known as a:

a. status.
b. role.
c. face.
d. total institution.

B
The expectations that Barbie dolls are for girls and G.I. Joe dolls are for boys are examples of:

a. role conflicts.
b. gender roles.
c. ascribed statuses.
d. status sets.

D
Which of the following scenarios involves the use of peer pressure?

a. A young lady is “whistled at” by a group of boys as she passes them in the hall.
b. Two boys steal another boy’s ball because he won’t share.
c. Two friends stage an intervention with another friend who they believe has a drug problem.
d. A student decides to go out for drinks after her friends make her feel guilty for “studying too much!”

B
According to dramaturgical theory, the primary goal of every social interaction is:

a. to be front (and center) stage.
b. to make a good impression.
c. to assume the correct role.
d. to conform to the script.

C
Choose the best example of an achieved status from the following.

a. a small Hispanic boy named Javier
b. a woman diagnosed with breast cancer
c. a newly ordained minister in a Pentecostal church
d. a baby who is baptized into the Roman Catholic church

D
The Harlem Children’s Zone (HCZ), a comprehensive program inspired by Head Start, aims to help low-income children become successful adults. The HCZ program differs from the Head Start program in all of the following ways EXCEPT:

a. The HCZ program includes a comprehensive medical service component.
b. The HCZ program aims to enroll families before the children are even born.
c. The HCZ program aims to keep children in the network until they graduate from college.
d. The HCZ program is focused on short-term cognitive and educational goals.

D
Although there are many agents of socialization, four of the primary ones are:

a. television, music, videos, and books.
b. schools, the military, colleges, and day care centers.
c. peers, religion, sororities, and fraternities.
d. family, schools, peers, and media.

B
Harold Garfinkel developed an approach to studying human interaction that focused on how people produce (and maintain) a mutually shared social order. This method was called:

a. dramaturgy.
b. ethnomethodology.
c. social constructionism.
d. dramaturgical analysis.

A
Expectations that define appropriate or inappropriate behavior for the occupants of a particular status are called:

a. roles.
b. folkways.
c. identities.
d. simple norms.

A
Theories of socialization focus, in part, on how the “self” develops. According to your textbook, the “self” is:

a. the individual identity of a person as perceived by that same person.
b. the identity of a person as perceived by others.
c. the individual’s sense of agency, action, or power.
d. the conception we have of our self when we look in our “social mirror.”

C
According to Goffman, we all try to make good impressions on others, and we actively work to ensure that others believe that they are doing the same. He calls this:

a. resocialization.
b. the generalized other.
c. impression management.
d. controlling one’s environment.

C
Which of the following provides a good example of the “generalized other”?

a. A little girl has a grandmother who always wears a hat. One day the girl sees a woman who is about her grandmother’s age and asks her where her hat is.
b. A child goes to a friend’s house to play and is surprised when her friend asks her to remove her shoes before coming into the house.
c. A child is taught to say “bless you” every time someone sneezes in her home. When she is at the grocery store one day, the child says “bless you” to a complete stranger who sneezes in the checkout line.
d. While at the park, a little girl notices a boy about her age standing all alone. Feeling sorry for him, she walks over and asks him if he would like to play.

B
The nature vs nurture debate examines the importance of _____ in shaping human behavior.

a. the natural vs social environment
b. biology vs social interaction
c. physical vs cognitive traits
d. parents vs community

D
Who developed role theory as a way to examine social relations?

a. Charles Cooley
b. Erving Goffman
c. Candace West
d. Robert Merton

B
Harold Garkfinel was well known for…

a. developing theory of impression management
b. creating breaching experiments
c. investigated armed forces as total institution
d. analysis of socialization agents

B
According to George Herbert Mead’s stages of development, children learn to recognize the “other” through…

a. formal games
b. imitation
c. playing informally with others
d. recognizing their own identity

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