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SOC chpt 7 STRATIFICATION

Which standard of equality is most concerned with the distribution of resources?
Equality of outcome
Economists and sociologists believe that the United States is stratified along what lines?
income
What kind of inequality did Rousseau believe would always exist?
Physical
What is another term for the nonworking poor?
underclass
From Malthus’s perspective, what keeps the population in check?
inequality
Which term refers to a group or an individual transitioning from one social status to another that is situated more or less on the same rung of the ladder?
horizontal social mobility
Mobility that is inevitable from changes in the economy is called:
structural mobility
Karl Marx and Rousseau agree on at least one thing: they both felt that the primary source of social ills in society was due to the emergence of:
private property
Ferguson and Miller saw social developments resulting from the establishment of private property as representing a huge improvement in society because private property leads to higher degrees of social organization and:
efficiency
A system in which advancement is based on individual achievement or ability is referred to as:
Meritocratic
Sociologists often describe an individuals position in a stratified social order that attempts to classify groups, individuals, families, or households in terms of indicators such as occupation, income, wealth, and education. Sociologists call this:
socioeconomic status
A type of stratification that is based on hereditary notions of religious and theological purity and in which there is little to no individual mobility within the strata is the:
caste system
What is the primary source of income for the upper class?
returns on investments
Trade of goods and services across national boundaries, as well as the mobility of the businesses and labor through immigration is called:
globalization
Ferguson and Millar saw social developments resulting from the establishment of private property as representing huge improvement in society because private property leads to higher degrees of social organization and:
efficiency
The prestige of a person’s first job out of school factors into his or her position on the:
Status attainment model
Professionals, small business owners, and craftsmen are referred to as:
Petit bourgeoisie
Hegel argued that notions of inequality are constantly evolving in a larger historical arc and will eventually lead to:
equality
In political speeches about the poor, those who are believed to deserve our assistance are termed the:
working poor
An example of the ideology of equality of condition put into practice is:
affirmative action
According to Rousseau, there are two forms of inequality: ________, or natural, and ________, or political.
physical; social
What is the fastest-growing job market for people with only a high school education?
Food preparation
According to Hegel, the master-slave relationship is one of mutual:
dependency
The examination of how race and ethnicity affect income is really an examination of:
stratification
Under what system is your societal position related to your position in the economic market?
class system
Which group exploits the working class by taking more of the value of the work of laborers than they repay in wages?
bourgeoisie
One of the best ways to reduce the number of children born (according to Sachs) is to:
decrease infanticide
According to the German philosopher Hegel, the master-slave relationship is one of mutual:
dependency
What term refers to the notion that everyone is created equal in the eyes of God?
ontological equality
The game of monopoly follows the rules of what standard equality?
equality of opportunity
According to the Relative Social Prestige of Selected U.S. Occupations table, which white-collar occupation has
the highest prestige score?
physician
Historically, Marx’s capitalist class was made up of members of the:
upper class
Elliot Essman asserts that America is a(n) ____________ because the very wealthy do not have much impact on the country in general.
middle-class nation
What American job sector has greatly increased since the oil crisis of 1973?
low-wage service work
The government’s definition of poverty for a family of four (as of 2009) is a total yearly salary of just under:
23,000
What is one of the main reasons cited for rising income and wealth inequality in the United States?
globalization
An example of horizontal social mobility is:
all of the above!!!
a. a secretary changing firms but retaining her occupational status.
b. a Methodist who converts to Lutheranism.
c. a family that migrates from to one city from another.

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