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SOC101 Ch. 4-6

Studies have shown that people interact with babies differently based on whether the babies are boys or girls. Using role theory, we could argue that:
sex is a master status in our society.
The expectations that girls play with Barbie dolls and boys play with G.I. Joe dolls are examples of:
gender roles.
The story of the abused child named Anna teaches lessons about the importance of ________ as an influence on human development.
human interaction
Expected conformity, especially among teenage friends, is known as:
peer pressure
According to research by Annette Lareau (2003), parents of different social classes socialize their children differently. Which of the following statements best describes these differences?
Middle-class parents are more likely to structure their children’s leisure time with formal activities; working-class parents leave it up to the kids to decide how they want to structure their free time.
Today’s assumption that childhood represents a distinct phase in the life course stands in sharp contrast to the notion of children as little adults that was popular in preindustrial times. This example highlights how:
our notions of childhood are socially constructed.
Front-stage mistakes, such as your sociology professor accidentally tripping as she walks into class one day, are known as:
breaches.
According to Erving Goffman, when there is a breach (mistake) in an established script, people generally do which of the following?
work hard to repair the mistake so everyone can move forward
According to impression management, the backstage arena would include:
times of solitude and personal reflection.
According to dramaturgical theory, the primary goal of every social interaction is to:
make a good impression.
A man “streaked” (ran around nude) at Harvard’s graduation ceremony. How would George Herbert Mead’s theory interpret streaking? The streaker:
has a keen awareness of the generalized other and simply enjoys soliciting people’s reactions.
The popular television show Sesame Street was created with the explicit purpose of providing educational opportunities for low-income children. Sesame Street has been very successful, showing that:
the media serve as a powerful socializing agent.
Your professor drank too much over the weekend and tripped and sprained his ankle. When asked about his injury in class the next day, the professor replied, “I sprained my ankle playing soccer with the kids.” This is an example of:
saving face.
Most people occupy many statuses at a particular point in time (e.g., student, son or daughter, employee, citizen). This list of statuses is known as the:
status set
Venus Williams is one of the top women’s tennis players in the world. Because this status overrides all her other statuses, it is known as her:
master status
You and your friend created a technology start-up. Since its inception, it has become very successful and you’ve had to hire many employees. At what point will you realize that it has become, in Georg Simmel’s terms, a large group?
when formal job titles are created and formal hierarchies between employees emerge
Mary goes out on a date with Suzanne. Viewed in sociological perspective, two persons on a date have formed a:
dyad.
The term “six degrees of separation” came out of research undertaken by Stanley Milgram, who wanted to test:
the reach of social networks.
Which of the following is a case study of a lifestyle that has endured and maintained its traditions despite wide changes in modern life?
the Amish in Pennsylvania
According to Georg Simmel, which of the following groups is the most fragile?
dyad.
What kind of group ceases to exist if even one member leaves the group?
dyads.
Your Introduction to Sociology class is probably which of the following types of groups identified by Charles Horton Cooley?
secondary.
Parenting coordinators are sometimes brought in by the court to help relieve tension between divorcing parents. When a dispute arises between the parents, the parenting coordinator can step in and help moms and dads “keep the peace.” The coordinator plays the role of:
mediator.
If stepsiblings Rebecca and Suzanne are asked to share bedrooms or other possessions and Rebecca views such sharing as an intrusion, she may have difficulty overcoming the tendency to play the role of ________ between her parent and the new stepparent.
divide et impera
When Peter Bearman and his colleagues analyzed the sexual habits of teenagers, they found that a person does not date the ex of the person’s ex’s boyfriend or girlfriend. This “no cycles of four” rule seems to operate:
without anyone being consciously aware of it.
Solomon Asch ran experiments in which subjects were presented with this image and asked about line length. Other people in the room offered wrong answers, and the subject’s responses were recorded. What did Asch conclude?
Groups exert powerful influence on an individual.
The most important difference between primary and secondary groups has to do with:
the degree of intimacy or instrumentality that people experience in these groups.
What appears to be the main reason for the success of Amish businesses when compared to other U.S. businesses?
The Amish live by prioritizing the community and its social capital rather than rugged individualism.
C. Wright Mills’s term for interlocking directorates is which of the following?
the power elite
In which of the following groups is coalition formation impossible?
dyads
Punishments that are overt expressions of official group sentiments toward deviants are also known as:
formal social sanctions.
When people in a society form social bonds and relate to each other on a daily basis, the society is said to exhibit:
social cohesion.
When an elementary school student is labeled the “class clown” by his teacher and then adopts the persona and lives up to others’ expectations by acting silly, the class clown label has become a:
stigma.
A factory worker wins $10 million in the lottery. He doesn’t know what to do with his life anymore or how to spend his time, so he becomes depressed and commits suicide. Émile Durkheim would say he has committed the ________ type of suicide.
anomic.
Neighborhood watch groups are examples of what urban theorist Jane Jacobs called:
the eyes and ears of the streets.
Why is it so difficult to track the crime rate over time?
The way particular crimes are defined changes over time.
The student guards in Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Experiment behaved the way they did because:
they experienced the Lucifer effect, in which they were affected by social surroundings and cultural expectations.
In his book Punished: Policing the Lives of Black and Latino Boys (2011), Victor Rios questions whether:
aggressive policing in inner-city neighborhoods actually decreases juvenile crime.
After a student drops out of high school, he becomes labeled a “drop-out,” and his subsequent actions and choices are explained in terms of this label. Those subsequent actions are called:
secondary deviance.
Violation of laws enacted by society is also known as:
crime
After serving a long prison sentence for grand theft auto, Charles stole another car. This is an example of:
recidivism.
David Rosenhan sent some of his students to a psychiatric hospital, saying they were “hearing voices.” Each pseudo-patient was admitted and diagnosed with a mental disorder. He was illustrating ________ theory.
labeling.
A crime such as burglary is also known as which type of deviance?
formal.
Although deviant behavior can be threatening and damaging, paradoxically it also:
strengthens society by exercising mechanisms that preserve cohesion.
A drug dealer stops selling drugs after learning on the street that another dealer was caught and punished. This is an example of which of the following?
general deterrence

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