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Sociology 1101 – Test 3A Final Review

C. The Sales Crow Song
What was the name of the song in the video on the Japanese Management School?
a. Atragon
b. Seppuku
c. The Sales Crow Song
d. Work Until You Drop
A. Deviance is a normal element of social organization
Assume you were listening to a lecture on Durkheim’s approach to deviance. Which of the following statements might well be the focus on the lecture?
a. deviance is a normal element of social organization
b. deviance is a dysfunctional element of social organization
c. deviance is less common in modern societies
d. deviance is defined by the rich and used against the poor
B. Ritualist
Using Robert Merton’s strain theory, how would you classify a low-paid, yet compulsively conforming bank teller who never seems to want to get ahead but never seems to do anything wrong?
a. innovator
b. ritualist
c. retreatist
d. rebel
A. Reflects both limited legitimate opportunity as well as accessible illegitimate opportunity
Cloward and Ohlin extended Merton’s theory of deviance, stating that crime:
a. reflects both limited legitimate opportunity as well as accessible illegitimate opportunity
b. is more common among the rich who have more opportunity
c. is defined in such a way as to overly criminalize the poor
d. is typically a result of drug dependence or other substance addiction
C. A passing episode of deviance that has little effect on the person’s self-concept
Edwin Lemert described “primary deviance” as:
a. the most serious episodes of deviance
b. actions that parents define as deviant
c. a passing episode of deviance that has little effect on the person’s self-concept
d. the experience of deviance early in life
D. Stigma
What concept did Erving Goffman use to refer to a powerful and negative label that greatly changes a person’s self-concept and social identity?
a. a deviant ritual
b. a degradation ceremony
c. a secondary identity
d. stigma
A. Interpreting someone’s past consistent with present deviance
The concept “retrospective labeling” refers to the process of:
a. interpreting someone’s past consistent with present deviance
b. defining someone as deviant for things done long before
c. criminal adults encouraging their children to become deviant
d. all of the above are correct
D. All of the above are correct
Which of the following statements illustrates the “medicalization of deviance”?
a. theft being redefined as a “compulsive stealing”
b. drinking too much being redefined as “alcoholism”
c. promiscuity being redefined as a “sexual addiction”
d. all of the above are correct
C. Youngsters who “hang out” waiting for something to happen
Travis Hirschi’s control theory suggests which of the following categories of people would be most likely to engage in deviance?
a. students enrolled in college
b. teenagers on sports teams with after-school jobs
c. youngsters who “hang out” waiting for something to happen
d. young people with respect for their parents
D. Any business that supplies illegal goods or services
Organized crime refers to:
a. illegal actions by people with white-collar jobs
b. illegal actions on the part of a corporation or large business
c. crime involving the cooperation of two or more businesses
d. any business that supplies illegal goods or services
B. A social group
What do sociologists call two or more people who identify and interact with one another?
a. a dyad
b. a social group
c. a network
d. a crowd
C. A primary group (Charles Cooley identified primary and secondary group, primary=smaal and enduring)
Charles Cooley referred to a small social group whose members share personal and enduring relationships as:
a. an instrumental group
b. an expressive group
c. a primary group
d. a secondary group
C. Secondary group; primary group
In general, we see the _____________ as a means to an end; we see the ______________ as an end in itself.
a. expressive group; instrumental group
b. crowd; category
c. secondary group; primary group
d. primary group; secondary group
D. Instrumental group
What is the term for group leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks?
a. democratic leadership
b. authoritarian leadership
c. expressive leadership (people-oriented)
d. instrumental leadership (task-oriented)
D. Group membership has the power to generate conformity
Solomon Asch’s research, in which subjects used to match lines, showed:
a. people seek out friends with whom they tend to agree
b. people defined as “leaders” have great power over their subjects
c. people tend to see most things differently
d. group membership has the power to generate conformity
C. People are surprisingly likely to follow the orders of not only real authority figures but also groups of ordinary individuals
Stanley Milgram’s research, in which subjects used a “shock generator,” showed:
a. people become angry when others disagree with them
b. the ability to withstand pain varies with cultural background
c. people are surprinsingly likely to follow the orders of not only real authority figures but also groups of ordinary individuals
d. that ordinary people are surprisingly independent in their judgments
B. Reference group
Which of the following concepts refers to a social group that people use as a point of reference in making evaluations or decisions?
a. peer group
b. reference group
c. out-group
d. dyad
C. Oligarchy
Which of these concepts was used by Robert Michels to refer to the rule of the many by the few?
a. bureaucracy
b. formal organization
c. oligarchy
d. authoritarian leadership
C. Applying scientific principles can make a business more efficient
The basic idea behind scientific management is that:
a. both science and formal organizations are rational
b. organizations benefit from employees with scientific knowledge
c. applying scientific principles can make a business more efficient
d. all of the above are correct
B. Creativity
Think about the process of McDonaldization. Looking at the list below, all but one of the traits is correctly linked to McDonaldization. Which is NOT a trait of McDonaldization?
a. efficiency
b. creativity
c. ability to calculate results
d. control through automation

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