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Sociology 4

Achieved Status
which basically amounts to what you are born with versus what you become.
Agency
while we operate within limits that largely are not of our own making (e.g., we cannot choose our parents or siblings, and U.S. law requires that all children receive schooling), we also make choices about how to interact with our environment.
Ascribed Status
amounts to what you are born with versus what you become. Another way to think about it is in terms of involuntary versus voluntary status. Your age, race, and sex are all largely ascribed statuses.
Breach
established script, we work hard to repair it and move forward. Humor is a useful tool in getting the script back in place.
Cooley
who coined the term the Looking-glass self
Dramaturgy Theory
He argued that life is essentially a play—a play with a moral, of sorts. And this moral is what Goffman and social psychologists call “impression management.
Face
according to Goffman, is the esteem in which an individual is held by others. We take this notion very seriously; hence, the idea of saving face, which is essentially the most important goal of impression management
Generalized Other
is a conception of the attitudes and expectations held in common by the members of the organized groups with whom one interacts.
Goffman
dramaturgical theory of society, which laid the groundwork for symbolic interactionism by using the language of theater as a paradigm to formally describe the ways in which we interact to maintain social order.
Identities
(conception of self as male or female) is firmly established.
Differences in play materials and toys, differences in aggressiveness – changes that remain stable for years. By middle childhood, gender segregated play is the norm.
Children also learn gender appropriate behavior by observing parents and by interacting with parents who reward/punish behavior consistent/inconsistent with gender norms.
Looking Glass Self Theory
This is the concept that describes the self-schema we create based on how we think we appear to others (initially family and later peers = significant others – the people whose reflected views have greatest influence on our self-concept)
Master Status
aster status roles can be ascribed, like disability, or achieved, like being a celebrity. The key characteristic of a master status is that people tend to interact with you on the basis of that one status alone.
Mead
xplained the process by which the social self develops. Infants only know the I—that is, one’s sense of agency, action, or power.
Primary Agents of Socialization
For most individuals, the family is the original source of significant others and the primary unit of socialization.
Resocialization
is a more drastic form of adult socialization. When you change your environment, you may need some resocialization.
Role
is the process of imaginatively occupying the position of another person and viewing the self and the situation from that person’s perspective.
Role Conflict
Often, we play several roles simultaneously, and if we have been properly socialized and don’t suffer from too much role conflict, we can transition in and out of roles with a certain amount of ease.
Role Strain
the incompatibility among roles corresponding to a single status.
Self
is the individual viewed as both the source and the object of reflexive behavior.
Significant Other
the people whose reflected views have greatest influence on our self-concept).
Socialization
is “the process through which individuals internalize the values, beliefs, and norms of a society and learn to function as its members”. Starting from when you were born, the interactions between you and the rest of the world have shaped who you are.
Status
which refers to a recognizable social position that an individual occupies.
Status Set
refers to all the statuses you have at any given time.
Total Institutions
refers to an institution that controls all the basics of day-to-day life. Members of the institution eat, sleep, study, play, perhaps even bathe and pray together. Boarding schools, colleges, monasteries, the army, and prisons are all total institutions to varying degrees—prisons being the most extreme
Impression Management
That is, all of us actors on the metaphorical social stage are struggling to make a good impression on our audience (who also happen to be actors).

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