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Sociology Chapter 4

Most sociologists (and biologists) argue that race is a human invention, or is socially constructed. Which of the following statements does NOT highlight how race is socially constructed?
People speak different languages.
According to impression management, the backstage arena would include:
where we are our private selves and where the real story takes place.
According to Charles Horton Cooley, we develop a self-concept by:
interpreting how others think about us.
Annette Lareau, author of Unequal Childhoods (2003), makes a compelling case for the existence of different parenting values and practices between working-class and middle-class families. Which of the following statements best summarizes what she found?
Class differences, played out in the daily routines of parenting, have a powerful impact on children’s life chances.
Concepts such as I, me, and generalized other are part of which theorist’s work?
George Hebert Mead
The process by which people internalize the values, beliefs, and norms required to become functioning members of a given society is known as:
socialization
Two young men are on an elevator together. After briefly acknowledging each other’s presence, they politely ignore each other for the remainder of the ride. Goffman would refer to this behavior as an example of:
civic inattention
According to George Herbert Mead’s stages of development, children learn to recognize an other through:
imitation
The three basic tenets of symbolic interactionism theory include all of the following EXCEPT:
Human beings inherit mutual understandings of symbols across cultures, times, and social changes.
Which of the following would be the best example of a total institution?
a convent
In managing impressions, people rarely challenge the credentials of an actor, even when they suspect that a false impression is being created. Which of the following reasons does NOT explain this tendency?
People feel sorry for others who cannot pull off false impressions.
Theories of socialization focus, in part, on how the self develops. According to your textbook, the self is the:
individual identity of a person as perceived by that same person.
Expectations that define appropriate or inappropriate behavior for the occupants of a particular status are called:
roles
All of the statuses that an individual occupies at any given time constitute his or her:
status set
Using dramaturgical theory, why is it more difficult to end a conversation (closing) when on the phone than in person?
It is impossible for people to see our closing gestures, many of which are nonverbal, when we’re on the phone.
Ultimately we hold people responsible for their behavior precisely because they can exercise choice over what they do. This speaks to the limits of socialization that sociologists refer to as:
agency
People and groups who influence our orientation to life and our self-concept, emotions, attitudes, and behaviors are:
agents of socialization
Most people occupy many statuses at a particular point in time (e.g., student, son or daughter, employee, citizen). This list of statuses is known as the:
status set
Sociologists view socialization as a lifelong process that begins when a child:
is born.
Which of the following provides a good example of the generalized other?
A child is taught to say “bless you” every time someone sneezes in her home. When she is at the grocery store one day, the child says “bless you” to a complete stranger who sneezes in the checkout line.
Which of the following best describes the difference between the I and the me in George Herbert Mead’s theory?
The I is selfish and impulsive; the me is how we believe others see us.
Unconscious signals of our true feelings, such as nonverbal behaviors, are known by Goffman as:
given-off gestures.
A recognizable social position that an individual occupies, such as student or professor, is known as a:
status.
According to dramaturgical theory, the primary goal of every social interaction is to:
make a good impression.
The sociological significance of roles is that they:
lay out what is expected of people.

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