Sociology (Chapter 5)
(example: Students sitting in an auditorium)
(display personal orientation)(define each other to “who” they are)
(People spend a great deal of time together, engage in a wide range of activities, and feel that they know one another pretty well. The family is every society’s most important primary group) (Among the first groups we experience in life.)
(display goal orientation)(define each other to “what” they are; what they can do for each other)
1. Instrumental Leadership:
refers to group leadership which focuses on the completion of tasks. Look to leaders to make plans, give orders, and get things done. More formal of a relationship.
2. Expressive Leadership:
refers to group leadership which focuses on the group’s well-being. Take less interest in achieving goals and focus on promoting the well-being of members and minimizing tension and conflict among members. These leaders build more personal, primary ties.
1. Authoritarian Leadership:
focuses on instrumental concerns, takes personal charge of decision makes, and demands that group members obey orders. This type of leadership is appreciated in a crisis.
2. Democratic Leadership:
More expressive. Makes a point of including everyone in the decision making process…leaders draw on the ideas of all members to develop creative solutions to problems.
3. Laissez-faire Leadership:
allows the group to function more or less on its own. Typically, the least effective in promoting group goals.
Even though common sense tells us that group discussion improves decision making, Janis countered that group members often seek agreement that closes off other points of view…citing not foreseeing the Japanese attach on Pearl Harbor and our ill-fated involvement in Vietnam. (i.e.; not speaking up in a discussion…)
(Can be primary or secondary)
(we also use groups that we don’t belong to for reference…see anticipatory socialization)
(Both based on the idea that “we” have valued traits that “they” lack)
(Both can foster loyalty but also generate conflict/ example is whites vs. blacks)
Social group toward which a member feels respect and loyalty.
Social group toward which a person feels a sense of competition or opposition.
Designates a social group with two members. Typically more intense than in larger groups because neither member must share the other’s attention with anyone else (love affairs, marriage)
Designates a social group with three members. A triad contains three relationships, each of which unites two of the three people. Is more stable than a dyad because one member can act as a mediator if relations between the other two become strained. On the other hand, 2 of the 3 can pair up to press their views on the third, or two may intensify their relationship, leaving the other feeling left out.
1. Large groups turn inward. (Example: Increasing # of international students to enhance social diversity may have opposite effect if the amount of them rises and they begin to form their own groups)
2. Heterogeneous groups turn outward. The more socially diverse a group is, the more likely its members are to interact with outsiders. (Example: groups of both sexes and various social backgrounds)
3. Physical boundaries create social boundaries. To the extent that a social group is physically segregated from others, its members are less likely to interact with other people (Example: by having its own dorm or dining area)
1. Utilitarian Organizations:
One that pays people for their efforts. (Examples: a business, government agency, or school system). Usually a matter of individual choice, although most people must join one or another such organization to make a living.
2. Normative Organizations:
People join to pursue some goal they think is morally worthwhile…sometimes called voluntary associations. (Include community service groups such as Amnesty International, the PTA, the League of Women Voters, and the Red Cross), political parties, and religious organizations).
3. Coercive Organizations:
Have involuntary memberships. People are forced to join as a form of punishment (prisons) or treatment (some psychiatric hospitals). Have locked doors & bars on windows, and supervised by security personnel. They isolate people for a period of time in order to radically change their attitudes and behavior.
Sociologist, Max Weber, claimed that modern society becomes “disenchanted” as sentimental ties give way to a rational focus on science, complex technology, and the organizational structure called bureaucracy.
First, they lacked the technology to travel over large distances, to communicate quickly and to gather and store information.
Second, the pre-industrial societies they were trying to rule had traditional cultures.
(Weber’s ideal bureaucracy deliberately regulates every activity)
Assigns individuals highly specialized jobs.
2. Hierarchy of offices:
Arrange workers in a vertical ranking. Each person is thus supervised by someone “higher up” in the organization while in turn supervising others in lower positions.
3. Rules and regulations.
Rationally enacted rules and regulations guide a bureaucracy’s operations to operate in a completely predictable way.
4. Technical competence:
Hire new members according to set standards and then monitor their performance.
Puts rules ahead of personal whim so that both clients and workers are all treated in the same way.
6. Formal, written communication:
Depends on formal, written memos and reports, which accumulate in vast files.
(These are factors outside an organization that affect its operation)
2. Economic and political trends:
All organizations are helped or hurt by periodic economic growth or recession. Most industries also face competition from abroad as well as changes in the laws, such as environmental standards, here at home.
3. Population patterns:
Average age, typical level of education, social diversity, and size of a local community determine the available workforce and sometimes the market for an organization’s products or services.
4. Current events:
Economic stability in Europe, sweeping political changes in the Middle East, and the current level of consumer confidence affect the operation of both government and business organizations.
5. Other Organizations such as:
Hospitals responsive to insurance industry and to organizations representing doctors, nurses, and other health care workers. It must also be aware of the medical equipment, health care procedures, and prices available at nearby facilities.
1. Bureaucratic Alienation:
(the impersonality that fosters efficiency also keeps officials and clients from responding to each others unique personal needs)
2. Bureaucratic Inefficiency (too much “red tape” ) and Bureaucratic Ritualism (focusing on rules & regulations to the point of undermining an organization’s goals):
3. Bureaucratic Inertia:
(refers to the tendency of bureaucratic organizations to perpetuate themselves) Tend to take a life of their own beyond their formal objectives…moves from doing their jobs to then protecting them.
The application of scientific principles to the operation of a business or other large organization.
It involves 3 steps:
1. Managers carefully observe the job performed by each worker, identifying all the operations involved and measuring the time needed for each.
2. Managers analyze their data, trying to discover ways for workers to perform each job more efficiently.
3. Management provides guidance and incentives for workers to do their jobs more efficiently.
(In the 1960’s, Rosabeth Moss Kanter proposed that opening up organizations for all employees, especially women and other minorities, increased organizational efficiency). (Pg. 120-122)
These organization were not hiring on the basis of competency and only certain social categories were included for hire which limited the talent pool of the organization. Women and minorities tended to be over-looked.
The “female advantage” were that they were more “information focused” where men were more “image focused”. Women placed more value on communication skills and the sharing of information, were more flexible leaders, and tended to emphasize the interconnectedness of all organizational operations.
(In the 1980’s global competition drew attention to the Japanese work organization’s collective orientation).
They were more like large primary groups…and valued cooperation over rugged individualism like the US; and their quality of product was superb. When their economy suffered a recession, they changed some of their organizational aspects which did not bode well for their organizations.
The economy of the US has moved from industrial to post-industrial production…characterized by information based organizations (using computers and other electron technology to create or process information). Many of today’s information age jobs demand creativity and imagination.
*Highly skilled & creative work (examples include designers, consultants, programmers, and executives)
*Low-skilled service work associated with the “McDonaldization” of society.
1. Creative freedom (subject to less day-to-day supervision as long as they generate good results in the long run).
2. Competitive work teams (Draw out the creative contributions of everyone and at the same time reduce the alienation often found in conventional organizations).
3. A flatter organization (By spreading responsibility for creative problem solving throughout the workforce, organizations take on a flatter shape. Pyramid shape is replaced with fewer levels in the chain of command).
4. Greater flexibility (Generates new ideas and adapts quickly to the rapid changing global marketplace)
1. Efficiency (i.e., entire breakfast packed into a single sandwich)
2. Predictability (company policies guide the performance of every job)
3. Uniformity (designed and mass produced uniformly according to a standard plan)
4. Control (i.e., automation)
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