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SOCY 101 Final

Émile Durkheim analyzed the social changes transforming society in his lifetime in terms of:
the division of labor
A child’s father is likely to tell the child to “say thank-you” when the child receives a gift. This is an example of:
socialization
According to Émile Durkheim, societies must have organic solidarity based on cooperation and a general agreement on basic values and customs in order to:
persist over time
According to Émile Durkheim, sociologists must study social facts, which are:
aspects of social life that shape our individual actions
According to Émile Durkheim, the following would gradually replace religion as the source of social cohesion in society:
division of labor
According to Émile Durkheim, the rapid process of social change gives rise to many social difficulties that he linked to
anomie
According to Karl Marx’s materialist conception of history, which of the following would be considered a source of social change in society?
the relationships between the working class and the owning class
According to Karl Marx, the modern era is shaped primarily by:
capitalism
According to Max Weber, economic factors are very important to social change in society. What other variable is involved in social change?
ideas and values
According to W. E. B. Du Bois, African Americans’ sense of self and identity are greatly influenced by the experiences of slavery and, after emancipation, segregation. Du Bois labeled this experience:
double consciousness
According to the sociological perspective, people’s behavior is:
influences by the social context
Alan Krueger and Stacy Dale found in their 2002 study comparing the average yearly income of students who had been admitted to and attended an Ivy League college with the average yearly income of students who had been admitted to but did not attend an Ivy League college that:
the individual matters, despite an apparent disparity in opportunities between Ivy League and non-Ivy League colleges
Harriet Martineau is significant to sociologists today for insisting that an analysis of society must include:
all of society’s members, including women
In Marxian analysis, which group makes up the largest component of society?
wage workers
In the classical period of sociology, ________ were rarely allowed to hold academic positions or to do sociological research, so their contributions have been neglected.
women and minorities
Karl Marx differs from Émile Durkheim in that Marx:
argued that social change is caused by economic influences as opposed to values and ideas
Max Weber contended that a bureaucratic structure is the most efficient organizational type. Which of the following exemplifies a bureaucratic organization?
the college or university you attend
Minzee has just been promoted to head assistant of Technology Innovations for the Department of Sociology. She now reports directly to the chairperson of the Technology Committee. Minzee is in charge of digitizing movie clips and sending them to the chairperson, who then loads the clips onto the department website. This chain of command is an example of:
bureaucracy
Organic solidarity is:
when the institutions of society function together as a whole
The early sociology theorists often differed in their analyses of social behavior and social institutions. Nevertheless, Auguste Comte, Émile Durkheim, Karl Marx, and Max Weber strove to explain the new relationships that emerged as an outgrowth of the:
industrial revolution
The economic system in which conflict is inevitable because it is in the interest of the ruling class to exploit the working class and in the interest of workers to overcome that exploitation is called:
capitalism
The foundational figures in sociology developed theories to address social inequality, exploitation, and stratification, but at the same time they:
ignored women and minorities
The idea of a sociological imagination originated with:
C. Wright Mills
The norms, beliefs, and values that we learn through socialization make ________ possible
social order
The significance of a sociological imagination is that:
sociology attempts to connect individual experiences to a conception of a larger social structure
The sociological imagination encourages us to look at the way in which an individual’s life is shaped by his or her social role, class, gender, and race. This emphasis on the position a person is born into is considered a(n):
deterministic framework
The way in which social structure limits the range of activities and opportunities in individuals’ lives is called
Social constraint
We can say that something is socially constructed when it is based on:
social context
What does the term social structure refer to?
a regularity or pattern in people’s behavior and relationships
What played the fundamental role in developing the capitalistic outlook, according to Max Weber?
religious values
What should knowledge of society be based on, according to Auguste Comte?
scientific evidence
When sociologists visit college campuses, they witness a variety of behaviors and social relationships that are not necessarily immediately apparent to the members of the college community. The ability to interpret all the events taking place within the campus is referred to as:
sociological imagination
Which early theorist saw class conflict as the main source of social change?
Karl Marx
Which of the following is a practical benefit of the study of sociology?
ability to assess the effects, including unintended consequences, of public policies
Which of the following was a focus of Max Weber’s research?
the influence of cultural ideas and values on social change and individual behavior
Which sociological theorist first used the word sociology to describe the science that seeks to understand human behavior?
Auguste Comte
Which sociologist showed that social factors exert a fundamental influence on suicidal behavior?
Emile durkheim
Which type of organization causes problems for effective democratic participation, according to Max Weber?
Bureaucracy
Who said about American society, “The problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color line”?
W.E.B DuBois
Who was the first sociologist to look at previously ignored issues, such as domestic life and race relations?
Harriet Martineau
When sociologists analyze the contexts of social interaction, it is often helpful to look at how people move through
zones of time and space
Some claim that our rapid advances in communication technologies are creating a “devoiced” society, which suggests that there is a decrease in:
direct interaction
What is one reason sociologists are concerned with civil inattention, which appears to be a rather unconscious behavior?
If an individual implies to another person that he is not suspicious of the other’s behavior, there is no reason to be hostile toward the other person whose social life is allowed to proceed in an orderly fashion
Nonverbal communication is:
the exchange of information through facial expressions and movements of the body
Sometimes a person will smile, but an observer notes that the person’s eyes look sad. Erving Goffman would say the sad eyes are part of the expression the person:
gives off
Everyday life is an important part of understanding the social world. The pioneering sociologist who developed microsociology and emphasized the importance of understanding the “seemingly trivial” was:
Erving Goffman
The use of the Internet, e-mail, chat rooms, and social networking sites such as Facebook:
adds a new and different dimension to the study of everyday life
Two people walking on a city sidewalk quickly glance at each other and then look away as they pass. Erving Goffman called this type of interaction:
civil inattention
Charles Darwin believed that basic human emotional expressions:
are innate and the same in all human beings
A researcher’s study of the text messages exchanged among a group of friends can be referred to as:
conversation analysis
Harold Garfinkel developed “ethnomethodology,” which is the:
study of folk or lay methods people use to make sense of what others say and do
A student who sends a photograph of himself drinking with a suggestive message to his boss can be considered to be engaging in an electronic form of:
interactional vandalism
Consciously or unconsciously, a person may use impression management to influence other people’s reactions to them. An example of this is:
wearing a business suit to a community business meeting
The requirement on Facebook that people must send a request and have it accepted to be a “friend” is one way that social media allows the user to employ:
audience segregation
As a form of social interaction, the exchange of information and meaning through facial expressions, gestures, and movements of the body is called:
nonverbal communication
The Internet is an exciting tool that facilitates communication between people. A latent advantage to electronic communication is that it:
masks a person’s membership in a traditionally disadvantaged group
When we look at the micro and macro connections that shape social issues such as the harassment of women on the street, we see that the:
solution must address the larger underlying issues, such as gender inequality
The reading, research, and other preparation that your professor did to get ready for the lecture in your sociology class was done in what Erving Goffman refers to as:
back regions
An “opening” is necessary for the type of focused interaction that Erving Goffman calls a(n):
encounter
Erving Goffman refers to an instance of focused interaction as:
an encounter
Elijah Anderson’s study (1990) of everyday life in two adjacent urban neighborhoods showed that tensions in social interaction are often based on the:
stereotypes about the presumed statuses of the individuals involved
A student drops a spoon on the floor as she carries her dish to the kitchen. As the spoon clatters loudly on the tile floor, she exclaims, “Ooooooh, sorry!” This is an example of
response cry
Why do people use impression management?
They are sensitive about how others see them.
The use of the Internet, e-mail, chat rooms, and social networking sites such as Facebook:
adds a new and different dimension to the study of everyday life
When a student texts his friends with familiar abbreviations and acronyms but e-mails his professors with carefully written and edited messages, he is using the media for:
impression management
A sex worker repeatedly tries to initiate conversation with a businessman despite his obvious unwillingness to respond. This is an example of:
interactional vandalism
One of the ways in which electronic media changes impression management is that:
nonverbal language plays much less, if any, part in many communications
When your professor is delivering a lecture, she usually displays professional behavior; that is, she does not scream, yell, or use excessive profanity. Erving Goffman refers to these behaviors as characteristic of:
front regions
Although social behavior is guided to some extent by forces such as roles, norms, and shared expectations, microsociology shows us how individuals also have:
agency
Which of the following statements is true?
Infants have facial expressions similar to those of adults.
The technique used by Mitch Duneier and Harvey Molotch to compare interactions between street people and passersby in New York City was:
conversation analysis
Socially defined expectations of a person in a given social position are referred to as social:
roles
The scenario in which students sleep in their bedrooms from 2:00 A.M. to 9:00 A.M., rush to a 9:30 A.M. class at the university, grab a quick lunch at the cafeteria, nap on the grass at about 3:30 P.M., return to class at 4:00 P.M., collapse in bed at 6:30 P.M., study in a library study room from 8:00 P.M. to 10:00 P.M., and go to a club from 10:15 P.M. to 1:30 A.M. illustrates the sociological concept of:
regionalization
According to Elijah Anderson, the sight of “public mothering” is a cue that indicates a space is what?
civil
An ethnomethodologist would likely study the:
. conversations among roommates in a college dormitory
What does Elijah Anderson call racially and ethnically diverse spaces that offer “a respite from the lingering tensions of urban life as well as an opportunity for diverse peoples to come together”?
cosmopolitan canopy
Erving Goffman and other theorists who focus on social interaction often use the analogy of:
theater and drama
A status message allows people who are participating in unfocused interaction to:
have more control over how they are perceived
Elijah Anderson would most likely characterize a ________ as a cosmopolitan canopy
state fair
Audience segregation allows people to:
reconcile their role in one part of life with their role in another part of their social world
The extent to which information about our lives is gathered by all kinds of organizations today has led some analysts to conclude that we now live in what kind of society?
surveillance
Which of the following arrangements facilitate(s) relationships and social interaction?
diverse and multifunction communities with extensive street traffic
Information about our lives is gathered by all types of organizations. This might be called
a ________ society.
surveillance
Strategic alliances formed among the largest corporations for the purposes of planning production and managing problems are known as:
enterprise webs
A mother and daughter enrolled in a large introductory sociology class would be considered a:
primary group
Dyads are fragile social groups because:
if one person leaves, the group disappears
Whereas psychologists study the emotions and behaviors of one person, sociologists study the patterns within groups. What is the smallest size that can make up a social group?
a dyad
Oligarchy means
rule by the few
People sharing a common characteristic—such as gender, occupation, or ethnicity—but not necessarily interacting with each other, are called a social:
category
According to Max Weber, all large organizations tend to be:
bureaucracies
A large group of people that engages in concerted collective actions to achieve specific objectives is called a(n):
organization
According to Weber’s analysis of organizations, the most significant relations between people as stated in the rules of an organization are:
formal
For a reference group to be effective, it must meet which of the following criteria?
have members who identify with each other or the group’s goal
You might want to be part of a secondary group to:
accomplish a specific goal, such as graduating from college
Which of the following is a social aggregate?
people waiting at Terminal C for Flight 181
Reference groups provide us
a standard for judging one’s attitudes and behaviors
The increasing use of “high tech” in the workplace is leading to the development of what kind of worker structure?
two classes
Recent sociological studies on the relationship between social networks and health outcomes such as obesity demonstrate that:
people develop their ideas about what is acceptable behavior by looking at those in their social groups
As people in modern societies, what do we depend on to take care of everything from how we are born to our daily supply of running water, and even to the way we die?
organizations
In general, what kind of ties do women within the job market tend to have in comparison to men?
weaker
A person who has the ability to influence other members of a group is called:
a leader
The first systematic interpretation of modern organizations was developed by:
Max weber
The rich and varied group life of societies reflects:
our need to congregate and belong
Introductory sociology classes tend to have fairly large enrollments, perhaps more than 100 students. In contrast, graduate seminars have small enrollments, usually fewer than 15 students. How does this difference in enrollment influence the dynamics of the different classes?
If a student skips the introductory class, it will have little or no effect on the class, whereas if a student skips the seminar, it will influence the class more.
At Jamie’s high school, the “jocks” made fun of the drama club members. This increased the bonding and sense of loyalty among the jocks; therefore, we could consider the jocks a(n):
in – group
Which of the following is an example of a primary group?
a high school girl’s clique
Stanley Milgram’s experiment on obedience to authority occurred more than 40 years ago. Scientists do not replicate his experiment and update the findings because:
universities have installed increased research protocols to protect subjects
Which of the following is problematic in a traditional bureaucratic organization?
innovation
Which of the following is a social group?
couple married less than one year
In which places is one most likely to encounter a food desert?
poor, inner-city neighborhoods, which tend to have fewer grocery stores and health food outlets
The McDonaldization of society refers to the:
increased uniformity and rationality of society due to fast-food restaurant operating principles
What did Max Weber liken bureaucracies to?
machines operating according to rational rules
Ideal bureaucratic systems that Weber describes tend to reinforce the:
rise of numerous unofficial ways of doing things because of the lack of flexibility in completing tasks in a bureaucracy
Which of the following best describes the relationship between group size, intimacy, and stability?
Larger groups, such as fraternities, are less intimate than small cliques, but the fraternities are a more stable group
What powerful force today is changing the face of many organizations, enabling them to avoid layoffs by allowing workers to telecommute or work from home as independent contractors?
information technology
Which is more likely to be an in-group?
primary group
According to Michel Foucault, organizations “efficiently distribute bodies” and activities through the use of:
timetables
Peter Blau studied government agencies and discovered what factor that allowed more flexibility than was possible within the formal structure of the bureaucracy?
informal relations
Sociologists use the term organization to refer to a group with an identifiable membership that engages in concerted collective actions to achieve a common purpose. What is most likely to make up an organization?
out – group
Regarding bureaucracies, Max Weber concluded that the closer they were to the ideal type, the more they would become:
effective in achieving their objectives
The number of women in the United States who have been victims of a completed or attempted
rape is:
1 in 6
In 2011, the Occupy Wall Street movement drew large numbers of people to New York City to protest rising income inequality. To make their point, these protesters marched on the city streets, built tent cities where they lived and slept while the demonstrations were ongoing, and actively worked to disrupt the flow of life. In Robert K. Merton’s view, these people would be what kind of deviants?
rebels
According to Robert K. Merton’s structural strain theory, anomie results from the strain on behavior that is imposed through norms that conflict with social reality. Looking at the figure in the text (Figure 7.2, Merton’s Deviance Typology), in which of the four types listed would we see the higher levels of anomie (note that conformity is excluded on the basis of this group being the largest)?
rebellion
Labeling theorists interpret deviance as a(n):
process of interaction between deviants and nondeviants
What type of theorist might argue that even the definition of crime is class biased, for example, that the crimes listed in the Uniform Crime Reports are crimes disproportionately committed by members of the lower class in the United States?
conflict
A common criticism of labeling theory is that labeling theorists:
neglect the processes that lead to acts being defined as deviant
According to the 2013 Hate Crime Statistics, approximately how many incidents against sexual minorities were reported in the United States?
1,233
With which of the following statements might a conflict theorist most closely agree?
Deviant behavior could be a response to inequalities in capitalist society.
Which of the following best describes Americans’ beliefs about capital punishment?
The percentage of Americans supporting the death penalty has nearly doubled in the past 40 years.
When a professor is delivering a lecture and some students begin to whisper back and forth, the professor may stop the lecture, remain silent, and stare at the students. What is the professor’s behavior an example of?
negative sanction
Recent media analysis of police departments across the United States found a huge backlog of “rape kits” in evidence rooms. There are many reasons for this, including the cost of testing and the difficulty in linking forensic evidence to the crime. One other aspect to this problem might be that:
rape is often seen as a sexual offense and not a violent crime
Which of the following research findings supports the chivalry thesis?
Police are less likely to arrest women than men for similar activities
1 out of 1 points
Émile Durkheim argues that deviance is necessary for a society, as it has an adaptive function. In suggesting this, Durkheim felt that society should respond to deviance in what way?
Keep deviance in acceptable boundaries.
Putting locks on mailboxes is an example of
target hardening
Which crime has the highest reporting rate in the United States?
auto theft
Alisa’s neighborhood is usually quiet, but the local newspaper reported an increase in criminal activity there. One morning, Alisa found her garage vandalized and covered in paint and eggs. She did not have time to clean up the mess right away. Her neighbors offered to help clean up her garage in the hope that the crime might stop. Later that week, Alisa’s neighbor found his car windshield shattered. What type of theorist would be the most likely to agree with the idea that a vandalized garage could lead to more crime?
broken windows
Sometimes a female lawbreaker is able to avoid punishment by invoking the gender contract. This concept allows the female lawbreaker to play on the idea that women in general are both erratic and:
in need of protection
Why would an administrative assistant in a larger, multinational corporation who decided to falsify financial data for personal gain not be seen as an example of corporate crime?
An administrative assistant doing so for personal gain is not acting on behalf of the corporation.
The two theories explaining deviance that are classified as interactionist are:
differential association and labeling theory
Your friend has requested you as a bridesmaid at her wedding, and asks that you wear a full-length dress, something that is physically uncomfortable for you. When you tell her you plan to wear a knee-length version, she is mortified, and says that she expects you to agree to her request. To get you to comply, she may use a:
sanction
Distribution of white-collar crime is very difficult to measure in contrast to other types of crime primarily because:
these crimes rarely appear in any statistical reports
Sociologists would classify a drug-dealing gang that follows some dominant social norms as:
deviant subculture
What is a common criticism of the functionalist theories of crime and deviance?
Functionalists tend to presume that everyone has middle-class values.
According to Robert K. Merton’s strain theory, what are the majority of people in society?
conformists
Nonconformity to a set of norms accepted by a significant number of people in a community is called:
deviance
At present, the United States has the highest incarceration rate per capita than any other country. What is one of the biggest challenges of this approach?
The annual cost of housing a prisoner is so high
Which theory explains why focusing on minor crimes like traffic violations, drinking, or using illegal drugs in public underpinned proactive policing in the late 1980s and early 1990s?
broken windows
Which of the following explanations for not cheating on this exam is supported by control theory?
You sit in the front of the class and are afraid of getting caught
According to differential association theory, which kind of person is more likely to be a delinquent?
a middle-class person whose friends frequently commit crime
Criminologists have suggested that among the reasons for the decline in reported crime rates in the 1990s are the improved economic conditions and lower unemployment. How might a sociologist explain this in regard to the idea of anomie?
As more people find jobs, there is a corresponding decline in the numbers of people who feel disoriented.
Which of the following most accurately describes the number of people in U.S. prisons?
The United States has the highest incarceration rate per capita in the world.
1 out of 1 points
If you live in a high-crime area, many of the people you see in the course of a day and possibly get to know may be involved in criminal activities, thus increasing your opportunity to learn criminal behavior. The conceptual context for this phenomenon is known as:
differential association
Who are the most common victims of murder and other violent crimes in the United States?
young African American urban males
The term “prison-industrial complex” has been used by critics to describe the current American prison system. What does this fact refer to?
Large numbers of people have vested economic and political interests in the expansion of the prison system.
The process of bringing community and family members into court to publicly state their condemnation of a criminal’s behavior and to accept the responsibility for reintegrating the offender back into the community is called:
reintegrative shaming
What type of sanction is applied only by people officially designated to enforce norms?
formal
In the movie “One Flew over the Cuckoo’s Nest,” one of the patients in the mental hospital tells the other inmates that they are not crazy and they should not act as though they are just because the head nurse tells them they are. Which of the following theories best explains the patients’ behaviors?
labeling
Which of the following statements best illustrates Howard S. Becker’s labeling theory of deviance?
Ex-offenders are much less likely to be called back by employers than men with similar resumes but no criminal record.
Most rapes in the United States are
not reported to the police
The National Crime Victimization Survey has found that compared to rates reported by official agencies, actual crime rates are:
higher for both property and violent crime
Police forces have grown steadily in the past 30 years in response to public demands for more protection. How has this affected the rate of violent crime in the United States?
No causal relationship between the number of police and violent crime rates has been identified.
Which type of theorist would argue that a low-income society can develop if people give up their traditional ways and adopt modern economic institutions, technologies, and values?
modernization
According to the text, __________ and __________ are categories that contribute to structured inequalities.
gender; racial identity
According to the text, in 2013, high-income countries had just 18 percent of the world’s population. How much of the world’s total income did these same countries have?
68%
What is one of the strongest predictors of income and wealth in later life?
education
The main argument of Thomas Picketty’s book Capital in the Twenty-First Century, that increasing wealth inequality is an inevitable feature of most capitalist economic systems, is MOST akin to the ideas of which theorist?
Karl Marx
“The life chances of a black woman with a high school diploma and a white woman with a bachelors degree are stratified. However, it is necessary to examine this not so much as just a racial issue, but as a ___________________ issue. “
Intersectional
What is wealth?
all of one’s assets minus what one owes on them
Marx identified surplus value as the source of profit in a capitalist system. What is surplus value?
the value of a worker’s labor power left over when an employer has repaid the cost of hiring the worker
During the post-World War II economic boom in the United States, the quality of life and financial resources of the average American rose considerably.
structural mobility
After being laid off from her well-paying job in 2009, Anita was unable to find another job like it, and eventually had to sell her house and move into a small apartment.
intragenerational mobility
After failing to show up on time for a month straight, Joseph, the boss’s nephew, was fired and replaced by Rodney, who had worked his way up from an entry-level position in the company.
exchange mobility
Rosario’s working-class parents saved money for years to send her to college, where she developed an interest in law; in the private firm she works for now, she earns more than both her parents combined.
intergenerational mobility
Which of the following is one explanation for the persistence of global economic inequality?
As the technology gap between countries widens, eliminating poverty is more difficult.
Dependency theories rely on theories developed by:
Karl Marx
What do the high rates of HIV/AIDS infections in African countries suggest?
The African people already experience high rates of malnourishment, poor water quality, and other infectious diseases.
According to your text, the wealthiest 0.1 percent of the population holds the same amount of wealth as the bottom __________ percent?
90%
Which theory draws primary attention to the exploitation of poor countries by rich ones?
dependency
Your text authors talk about some of the wealthiest people in the world. What do these people have in common?
they are all men
What is relative poverty?
poverty defined according to the living standards of the majority in any given society
In sub-Saharan Africa, what is likely to happen to children under 5 years of age?
They are more likely to die than to enter school.
What is status, according to Max Weber?
the social honor or prestige a particular group is accorded by other members of a society
According to the logic of Davis and Moore’s functionalist theory of stratification, which of the following occupations must be functionally most important to society?
corporate lawyer
Which types of countries contained 12 percent of the world’s population but produced only seven-tenths of a percent of the world’s GDP in 2013?
low-income
Rosie, a woman from a working-class family who works as an administrative assistant, won a huge lottery jackpot. She decided to apply for membership at an exclusive country club in the next town over but felt unwelcome after ordering the “wrong” wine at a prospective member dinner and receiving stares from members when she smoked a cigarette outside. What does Rosie’s experience demonstrate about class?
Class is not only determined and expressed economically but also through lifestyle choices and personal tastes.
What is meant by the feminization of poverty?
an increase in the proportion of the poor who are female
Neoliberalism holds that only through unfettered global free trade will the world economy prosper and allow all countries to grow. What theory does neoliberalism originate from?
modernization
During the twentieth century, the real income of blue-collar workers in Western societies has:
increased significantly, but dropped in the last 20 years
What was the original cause of underdevelopment in the low-income countries according to dependency theory?
colonialism
_____________ negatively impacts women’s class position far more than it impacts men’s class position.
divorce
__________ have the highest percentage of median income, while __________ have the lowest percentage.
asians;blacks
What is one implication of Bourdieu’s theory of cultural capital?
Social mobility is less about how hard you work and more about the kinds of tools you work with.
The subprime mortgage crisis described in the beginning of this chapter has potentially contributed to the rapid growth rate of which of the following populations of homeless people?
families with children
What is the primary legacy of colonialism from the perspective of a dependency theorist?
transnational corporations
In 2014, there were 1,645 billionaires worldwide. Their combined assets were more than the total gross national income of all but the top ten economies of the world and were estimated to what value?
6.4 trillion
Ownership of wealth, occupation, income, and education are the four main bases of which kind of stratification system?
class
Which of the following explanations does your text give to explain, in part, why blacks and Hispanics were particularly hard hit by the recession of 2008?
Lenders of subprime loans tend to focus on minority communities that were often passed over by prime lenders.
Which of the following is an important condition that facilitated the accumulation of unprecedented wealth in the twenty-first century?
globalization
__________ is directly challenged by the idea that structural forces shape the way resources are distributed.
The “culture of poverty” thesis
According to world systems theory, why must the global economic system be approached as a single capitalist unit?
The current system of world capitalism is not a collection of independent countries.
What is the most significant difference between the working class and the lower class?
While working-class families often struggle to get by, they tend to have significantly more job and neighborhood stability than those in the lower class.
What percentage of Americans live in extreme poverty, meaning at near-starvation levels?
6.7%
The theory offered by Simon Kuznets regarding the relationship between inequality and economic development is challenged by which of the following facts?
Between 1990 and 2004, CEO pay increased by 300 percent, while production worker pay increased by only 4.5 percent.
The concept of global commodity chains attempts to describe what characteristic of the global economy?
he increasing globalization in manufacturing
After Jamaica gained independence from its colonial ruler, Britain, it was able to develop its banana industry by having access to the banana market in Britain. How would a dependency theorist describe this process?
dependent development
A commonly held assumption about women and work is that women:
are naturally better in support positions in office settings than in managerial positions
A growing number of sociologists have argued that:
both gender and sex are socially constructed
A large, well-known Wall Street investment banking firm is seeking good candidates to fill a newly created position in upper management. Among the criteria are that the individual must have had at least 15 years of experience and an advanced degree. One factor that may affect the chances of a woman being hired into this position might be:
the glass ceiling
A situation in which ethnic cultures have a distinct and separate existence even while their members participate in the economic and political life of the larger society is known as:
pluralism
A sociologist who puts gender at the center of the analysis of the social world can be said to be using:
feminist theory
According to the functionalist sociologist Talcott Parsons, the family is most efficient when it operates with a clear sexual division of labor, with the males being the breadwinners and females providing care and security as well as emotional support, something he referred to as the:
expressive role
According to the text, what does biological sex refer to?
the anatomical differences distinguishing males from females
As a sociological concept, ethnicity refers to:
cultural practices and outlooks, including language, history, ancestry, religion, and styles of dress or adornment that tend to set people apart
Because of tightened immigration laws, it is increasingly common to find that many industrialized countries have ________ models of immigration.
illegal
Human capital theorists reason that women choose occupations that are easy to move in and out of while still providing a decent income because women:
have primary allegiance to home and family
Historically, Europeans classified the individuals with whom they came into contact in various parts of the world according to categories based on their physical attributes. These categories became the basis of systems that shaped and constrained the people’s daily lives. This process is known as:
racialization
Global migratory patterns are a result of the combination of two separate forces—the movement of people into a country to settle, and the process by which people leave a country to settle in another, and these are a known as:
immigration and emigration
Gender socialization begins:
at birth
Differences in status, power, and prestige between men and women in groups, collectives, and societies is known as:
gender inequality
Despite the Equal Pay Act of 1963, the gender gap in pay has not been eliminated but has been partially changed by the implementation of:
comparable worth policies
Consensual sex should be something desired by both participants equally, but the realities of sexual violence would suggest that between consensual sex and rape lies:
a willingness on the part of men to use pressure, threats, coercion, and force to obtain sex
in the colonial model of migration
emigration but not migration is allowed
In the preceding 350 years or so, there have been at least four massive population shifts. The following example that most closely represents these massive shifts is the:
movement of europeans to other parts of the world
Incidences of rape increase significantly during war. This happens because for men:
social norms condemning rape do not apply during war
Mislabeling of behavioral problems in school, according to sociologists, may have resulted in the placement in special education programs of dramatically higher numbers of:
boys
Monica is nervous about walking alone at night and is wary of any new men that she meets. Some scholars would argue that this is a consequence of:
being a woman
The “glass ceiling” prevents women from improving their salaries and positions. At the same time, men who enter a field that is usually dominated by women find that they encounter:
the glass escalator
Some sociologists argue that women are just as aggressive as men, but women display a different style of aggression that is consistent with gender norms. For women in the United States, this is called:
indirect aggresion
Sociologists use the phrase “racial literacy” to refer to the fact that:
multiracial children can learn methods of dealing with racial hierarchy
Since the 1950s, women’s participation in the labor force has risen more or less continuously, and now women
now outnumber men in the labor force
Racism is increasingly based on cultural differences as opposed to “scientific” racism. Which of the following examples illustrates “new racism,” or cultural racism?
African Americans who do not value family because of the high rates of single-parent households
One of the main reasons that rape is difficult to track statistically is because:
there is a large difference between men’s and women’s definition of forced sex
One of the differences between the nature of household work among men and women is that women’s work around the home often:
ties them down to a regular schedule
One common characteristic of all societies with regard to gender relations is that they are systems of:
patriarchy
The theory that offers an understanding of race as a form of inequality that emerged through past political struggles establishing and contesting white dominance is:
racial formation theory
The text refers to companies such as State Farm Insurance and Walmart that deny women the ability to advance in their companies as:
workplace gatekeepers
The term minority group is potentially ambiguous and confusing, particularly for sociologists, because:
they use the term to mean disadvantaged, not necessarily a group of less than 50 percent of the population
The sociologically defined characteristic of minority group is:
a disadvantaged group
The physical separation of a racial or ethnic group is called
segregation
The goal of the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and Empowerment is to:
recognize that equality for women and girls is a human right and a social and economic imperative
The feminization of migration patterns refers to the fact that:
the number of women migrants has increased in part because of changes in the global labor market
The case of Rachel Dolezal, former head of the Spokane, Washington, NAACP chapter, generated controversy in 2015 when she was outed as having white parents despite having publicly identified herself as black. Her case brought to the fore the ways in which race is not only biological but also performed and enacted in daily interactions. Her case could thus be analyzed through which type of theory?
processual
Women are so often the targets of sexual violence because:
men are socialized to feel sexual entitlement and insensitive to the difference between consensual and nonconsensual sex
Women are much less likely than men to obtain a secondary education in:
Iran
The work of gender scholars discussed in this course demonstrates how gender is performed differently by those embedded in variant, sometimes overlapping, statuses (age, race, class, sexuality, etc.). This approach to the analysis of social status is referred to as __________________.
intersectionality
The term that refers to the rightfully executed use of power is called:
authority
Voter turnout in the United States is among the lowest in the world. Many Americans say that they do not vote because they:
believe that voting takes too much effort
What is the strongest evidence offered by the text in support of C. Wright Mills’s position that the military plays a central role in the power elite in the United States?
the enormous size of the U.S. military budget relative to other countries
Which of the following is true of new social movements?
They are a response to globalized risks resulting from the effects of large-scale systems that national democratic institutions are unable to fix.
The idea that globalization is bringing about the end of the nation-state is countered by _________________.
the continual rise in the number of independent nation-states
Texas is famous for the strong state pride held by its inhabitants. The importance of the shared identity of being a Texan could be thought of as an example of ______.
local nationalism
The idea of using understandings of history as a basis for creating informed social change is known as ______.
historicity
evangelical political activism is an example of
new social movements
What is the principal difference between participatory democracy and liberal democracy
In the former, decisions are made collectively with the participation of all citizens, whereas in the latter, the people elect individual representatives who in turn make decisions.
The United States is a liberal democracy because:
americans can choose between two or more political parties
What is the definition of democratic elitism?
a theory of the limits of democracy that holds that in large-scale societies democratic participation is necessarily limited to the election of political leaders
What is the definition of civil society?
the sphere between the state and the marketplace occupied by family, community associations, and other noneconomic institutions
What is state overload?
a theory that modern states face major difficulties as a result of being overburdened with complex administrative decisions
There is often a clash of ideas when a government attempts to provide material benefits for those who are unable to support themselves, and the result is what we refer to as a:
welfare state
Your text points to several factors that support the idea that the internet has important potential to facilitate widespread democratic participation. What is the underlying theme of those factors?
The internet creates pathways for communication and collective action that subvert or exist outside of established power structures
The collective Anonymous has mounted a wide range of disruptive events that have often shut down industries and parts of government. A sociologist would be unlikely to call this effort a revolution because the collective:
doe not use violence
In Karl Marx’s model, the primary source of the contradictions that lead to class struggle and revolution is:
changes in the forces of production
The idea of the welfare state has generated a lot of debate in the United States over the past 50 years, especially during an election. The idea of the welfare state, though, is an integral part of our ________ rights.
social
Which of the following is a key conceptual difference between Weber’s view of democratic elitism and Mills’ theory of the power elite?
Weber emphasized the importance of quality leadership in meeting the interests of the people, while Mills emphasized the idea that those in charge constitute their own social, political, and economic interest group and make decisions accordingly.
Which of the following does an interest group use to try and accomplish its goals?
lobbying member of legislative bodies
President Dwight Eisenhower delivered a farewell address in 1952 that warned of an impending change in the nature of our democracy, and suggested that the large corporations and the military, in cooperation with the government, would soon run the United States and exercise a huge amount of power. Just as sociologists have suggested, this same unified group is referred to as the:
power elite
The recent rise of ISIS or ISIL—the Islamic State movement—in the Middle East has led to a broad attempt to exert forceful, military and cultural control over different parts of the region. The reason that ISIS cannot be considered a modern state is because they:
are not an authority backed by a legal system and governmental apparatus
In recent years, participants in social movements have learned to do something that is particularly worrisome to governments, which is the ability to:
coordinate international political campaigns by using the internet and other technology
What is the definition of power?
the ability of individuals or the members of a group to achieve aims or further the interests they hold
When listing countries in the order of money spent on the military, the United States spends more than 15 countries combined. The public figure who warned the country to beware of the expanding military and the industries that cater to it was:
president Dwight D. Eisenhower
The potential of the internet to encourage democratic exchange that may oppose or question existing power structures is most challenged by which of the following observations?
states are able to use the internet to spy on and control their own citizens
While there are many reasons why a relatively small number of women hold elected political offices in the United States, the text cites which of the following as a “critical factor” that explains why relatively few women run for office?
Women are less likely than men to be recruited by party leadership to run for office.
Which of the following is most likely to significantly increase voter turnout in the United States?
making voting legally compulsory
A characteristic of the Tea Party is:
that it is not actually a party at all
According to the text, what is one reason that processes of nation formation have been so problematic in postcolonial states?
Territorial boundaries in the colonial world were imposed externally on areas that often had no prior cultural or ethnic unity, leading to problems that are difficult to overcome.
The right to a fair trial is a ________ right.
civil
The text names trade unions, ethnic groups, and business organizations as examples of interest groups. Which of the following is the best critique of the view of some pluralist theories that the more pluralistic a society, the more democratic it is likely to be?
Because some interest groups are extremely powerful with nearly unlimited financial resources and others have very few resources, interests groups do not always provide the balance suggested by pluralist theories
In most countries, the establishment of social rights takes place after the exercise of other rights. This is due to the fact that in most cases, civil and political rights were something that:
poor and underrepresented groups had to achieve prior to obtaining social rights
Why did the 2010 Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission change the concept of what we define as an interest group?
It recognized the right of corporations to express an opinion on a candidate.
According to Weber, in a modern, bureaucratized democracy what is one of the most important characteristics for a government official to have?
expertise
The undisputed political rule of a state over a given territorial area is called ______
sovereignty
Theda Skocpol believes that revolutions are not the direct result of a deliberate pursuit of interests, but instead are ambiguous in nature and result from the more limited aims of different groups as:
unintended consequences
The statement “Protest is an end in itself. It helps us establish who we are and what we are about,” accurately reflects the underlying attitude of:
new social movements
In China in 2012, an estimated 538 million people used the Internet. The authoritarian Chinese government has banned the publication of “state secrets” online. Much of the Internet filter is facilitated by companies in
the US
What theories of democracy are best supported by the overwhelming influence of the pharmaceutical lobby in shaping health care legislation in 2010?
the power elite
Which country is the exception to the general pattern of shorter working weeks in industrialized countries since the mid-1980s?
US
The “race to the bottom” in relation to the global economy means that:
retailers and manufacturers will go anywhere to find the lowest wages
Providing a meaningful sense of social identity, and constructively structuring people’s time are two of the individual benefits of _______.
work
The “new” economy in which ideas, information, and forms of knowledge support and sustain innovation and growth is most commonly called the:
knowledge economy
One of the principal differences between Fordist corporations and post-Fordist corporations is that the former are _____ while the latter are _____.
centralized; decentralized
Compared with other jobs, union membership is much higher in:
government
What was the main finding in Richard Freeman and Joel Rogers’s survey regarding the most desirable working conditions?
More than any other one thing, workers want more influence at work.
Why has Taylorism been associated with the de-skilling and degradation of labor?
It took control and knowledge of the production process out of the hands of laborers and into the hands of managers.
Which of the following occupations is most likely to evoke a sense of alienation from those who perform it?
data entry clerk at a large corporation
Henry Ford paid his workers well. He did this to ensure compliance in the workforce and:
to enable workers to afford to buy the products they made
Which of the following statements is true about low-wage work?
Low-wage workers in the United States not only have declining real wages, but also have little access to various kinds of employment benefits or job security.
From a sociological perspective, women who are homemakers:
do work, although they are not part of the paid labor force
For one of his business classes, Wallace was asked to develop a corporate business plan. The main components of the plan he presented in class involved creating strategic partnerships with other corporations in the same industry and contracting smaller companies to perform services and/or provide materials, rather than doing them within the corporation itself. Wallace’s business plan illustrates the characteristics of ______.
twenty first century corporation
According to Karl Marx, capitalism reduces many people’s work to dull, uninteresting tasks, over which workers have no influence or control. He referred to this situation and the feelings it engendered as:
alienation
The specialization in producing goods for the world market that divides regions into zones of industrial or agricultural production or high- or low-skilled labor is called ______.
the international division of labor
Unemployment is increasingly a standard condition in the U.S. economy because:
the worldwide economic recession was combined with a reduced need for labor power
Harnessing science to machinery to achieve greater productive efficiency is known as:
technology
The parts of the U.S. economy in which the entrepreneur is still common are:
big corporations
The success of unions associated with service jobs and the decline of unions associated with manufacturing jobs that have moved overseas suggests that ______.
industries subject to global labor competition are those in which workers are the most vulnerable
Modern societies have thousands of occupations and therefore a great deal of:
economic interdependence
What was the overall finding regarding the impact of automation on work in Richard Sennet’s 1998 study of a bakery?
While automation takes care of the more tedious tasks and has resulted in a more highly skilled labor force, it has also removed much of the freedom of workers to make independent decisions in their work.
The domination of a small number of firms in a given industry is known as ______.
oligopoly
Karl Marx argues that workers in capitalist societies:
are dehumanized by tedious and demeaning labor processes over which they have no control
What is union density?
a statistic that represents the number of union members as a percentage of the number of people who could potentially be union members
Worker strikes are a means of ________.
leveraging collective power over employers
Chapter 6 defines a bureaucracy as a type of organization marked by a clear hierarchy of authority, in which each position has a specific and clearly defined set of tasks. A bureaucracy is a good example of a formalized ______.
division of labor
The term economic interdependence implies that ___________________.
the modern division of labor has made individuals dependent on many others to produce many or most of the goods they need to live
Corporations provide social goods and securities to employees, rather than leaving such provisions to unions or the state.
welfare capitalism
Ownership and management of capitalistic enterprise is family based and passed down from one generation to the next.
family capitalism
Transnational corporations with an international body of shareholders lose tethers to particular nation states and roam freely in search of low labor costs and regulations.
global capitalism
Large corporations are highly interconnected through partial mutual ownership, creating large blocks of corporate power transcending single corporations.
institutional capitalism
Corporations become more defined economic entities as managers gain a much more central position than owners.
managerial capitalism
In sociological terms, economic transactions carried on outside the sphere of orthodox paid employment are known as _____.
the informal economy
A reason why having a job is important to people is
to make social contacts
What kinds of jobs are primarily replacing the disappearing blue-collar manufacturing jobs in the new economy?
low-skilled service-sector jobs
The existence of the global cultural bazaar, the global shopping mall, the global workplace, and the global financial network, as theorized by Richard Barnet and John Cavanagh, suggest that ________.
capitalism is one of the primary drivers of globalization
What are portfolio workers?
workers who are able to move easily from one job to another because they possess a diversity of skills and/or qualifications
What appears to be one of the biggest incentives for the wave of business mergers and acquisitions in the past two decades?
the desire to eliminate competition and productive overcapacity
What is the explanation offered by Chris Kollmeyer for why unemployment in Europe has been somewhat higher than in the United States?
Better social services and unemployment benefits in Europe allow unemployed individuals to wait for a relatively good job, thus making unemployment spells longer.
Technologies like 3D printing that allow mass-customization of products are created in part in response to which of the following?
ever changing demands of consumers as they are shaped by advertising
Education institutions are active participants in social reproduction because they
reinforce the cultural advantages of upper- and middle-class families
Formal systems of education developed in modern societies because:
schools promoted the development of personality traits such as self-discipline and obedience, which employers needed in their employees
The ultimate ruling of the Supreme Court in 2015 that individuals have a constitutional right to same-sex marriage was predated by what other important event?
the striking down of DOMA in Windsor v. United States of America in 2013
An unintended consequence of school busing is that:
white families fled from the city into suburban areas, leaving the center cities to decay
What is the definition of cohabitation?
two people living together in a sexual relationship without being married
According to research on class and the family conducted by Annette Lareau, why might working-class families be more likely to follow the “accomplishment of natural growth” model, rather than the “concerted cultivation” model of child rearing?
The lack of financial resources held by working-class families prevents them from engaging their children in organized, developmental activities such as music lessons that they otherwise might choose to do.
understanding and charting the transformations of family forms
contemporary perspectives
assessing the role of the family within industrialized society
functionalism
dismantling overly romanticized views about previous family forms
historical perspectives
charting and analyzing the inequalities and power struggles inherent within families
feminist approaches
John is from an upper-middle-class home and has the benefit of extracurricular activities and the latest technology. He is a good student, but does not have an exemplary record. Clorista is a bright and energetic student who loves math and science. Her grades are strong, but they would be better if she had more time and resources. She has limited access to a computer and often has to care for her younger siblings while her mother is at work. John and Clorista both applied for positions on the Yearbook Committee. John was appointed, and Clorista was offered membership in the “Day of the Dead” committee, which is headed by the Spanish teacher. She is unable to accept because of her commitments at home. Sociologically speaking, in comparison to Clorista, John possesses more:
cultural capital
Schools originally arose:
largely as a result of the development of printing and the ensuing need for broader literacy
“A group of sociologists are collecting data on single-parent families and comparing thier lives to two-parent families. in the same communities They are focusing on the who does the housework, cooking, bill paying, and home repairs. These variables are what is referred to as the family ____________. “
roles
According to Edin and Kefalas’s study of low-income, single mothers, why do so many women continue to have children out of wedlock?
Many low-income women feel that marriage could cause more problems, both financial and emotional, than it would solve.
According to the leading research findings on academic achievement, which of the following has the greatest influence on a student’s success in school?
parents’ socioeconomic status
Jonathan Kozol’s (1991) study of American schools found that:
high levels of segregation within schools and great inequalities between them exist
Tasha lives with her mother, father, and her father’s parents. She lives in a/an _____.
extended family
The Coleman (1966) studies and the Jencks (1972) research indicate which of the following two important points concerning education in our society?
Educational and occupational attainment is governed by family background. On their own, educational reforms can produce only minor effects on social inequality.
Within those of the same age group, who is more likely to get married?
people who have been married and divorced compared with people who have never been married
Sharon and Luke, both IT workers, make a point to read to their children every night before putting them to sleep. Which explanation of the achievement gap does this example best illustrate?
Middle- and upper-middle-class parents tend to invest more heavily in their children’s cognitive development.
New information technologies and the growth of the knowledge economy will affect education by:
shifting the emphasis toward active, lifelong learning in diverse settings
n a counterargument to the claims made in The Bell Curve, a team of sociologists from the University of California, Berkeley asserted that the factor that is more important than intelligence in determining how well people do in life is:
one’s parents’ socioeconomic status
How does divorce impact the living standard of the spouses following their dissolution?
The standard of living drops by 27 percent for women and goes up 10 percent for men.
Evidence that social advantage results in higher IQ scores ________ Richard J. Herrnstein and Charles Murray’s view on intelligence.
refutes
According to researchers for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, approximately what percentage of child deaths from abuse or neglect are not recorded?
50-60%
“The discourse of family values tends to privilege the ____________, regardless of the fact that it represents only 38% of American households. “
nuclear family
The belief in romantic attachment as a basis for contracting marriage ties is known as ______.
affective individualism
Research (see Klinenberg’s study) suggests that people who live alone do not tend to feel lonely and socially alienated, because:
people who live alone actually tend to have more social interactions than their married counterparts.
During the Great Recession, Jerry was laid off from his banking job. As a result his wife went from part-time to full-time work, and Jerry spent the term of his unemployment taking care of most of the domestic responsibilities. What can be concluded about family structure from stories like Jerry’s?
Large-scale social and economic changes yield changes in family structure and dynamics.
A family in which at least one partner has children from a previous marriage, living in the home or nearby, is known as a/an _____.
step-family
A major legacy of colonialism in the developing world is the high level of:
illiteracy
The cycle of social reproduction is created within the school because:
in many ways, working-class children have a more perceptive attitude toward the organization of the school than do middle-class children, but the latter group sees the school as a vehicle for upward mobility
The high rates of births to unmarried women in African American, Puerto Rican, and Native American communities suggests ___________.
that people who live in poverty are less likely to get married, even when they have children or cohabitate
Research indicates that ___________ families are most likely to have elders playing active roles in rearing their grandchildren?
native american
As the global economy becomes more knowledge-based, the likely outcome is that:
Internet access will become the new line of demarcation between the rich and the poor
Dara and her fiancé are contemplating whether they should move in together before the wedding (a year away) or wait until they are married. Neither of them have cohabited before. Although they are anxious to begin their lives together, Dara has heard that living together before marriage increases the likelihood of divorce. What is one reason Dara may have little to fear?
Because they are beginning the period of cohabitation already having made a serious commitment, Dara and her fiancé will not be conditioned by cohabitation to see relationships as easily dissolvable.
A stereotype threat occurs:
when people believe they are being judged not as individuals but as members of a group
In matrilocal societies, newly married couples set up their household with or near ______.
the bride’s family of orientation
Which of the following is true of single-parent households?
Although most single-parent households are headed by women, there is a great deal of economic and social diversity within female-headed, single-parent households.
Children raised in single parent homes have double the risk of experiencing negative outcomes. This is because the percentage of children who were raised in two-parent homes and have negative outcomes is _______________ and the percentage of children who were raised in single-parent homes and have negative
2%; 4%
What is the most significant difference between children raised by straight parents and those raised by gay parents?
Children raised by gay parents were less likely to adhere to gendered expectations and norms.
A sociological analysis of education would include:
the relationship between education and social inequality
What is one of the factors complicating research on the effects of divorce on children?
Marriages in which the partners are unhappy but stay together may adversely affect children in ways difficult to detect in divorce studies.
Which of the following is part of the hidden curriculum in schools?
teaching students to respect authority
According to sociologists of religion, under what circumstances do cults flourish?
when there is a breakdown in well-established societal belief systems
How did Weber theorize the connection between Protestantism and economic development?
The value of worldly asceticism inherent in Protestantism favored the accumulation of wealth, which facilitated the concentrated resources needed for the spread of capitalism.
Sociologists would term a set of beliefs adhered to by the members of a community and that incorporates symbols regarded with a sense of awe or wonder together with ritual practices as:
religion
The religious denomination that has the highest percentage of college graduates in the United States is
Judaism
Religious nationalism is _________.
the linking of strongly held religious convictions with beliefs about a people’s social and political destiny
Why are world-rejecting religious movements more likely to display characteristics of total institutions than other kinds of religious movements?
Being in direct opposition to the outside world, they must take far more care to maintain separation from it by regulating many aspects of followers’ lives.
The country that has no separation of mosque and state is
Iran
Martina’s church slowly began losing members several years ago to a new, nondenominational worship center that opened in the same community. As a result, her pastor made some changes designed to appeal to a wider, more contemporary congregation, including changing the music selection and beginning a spiritual study group open to all members and nonmembers that became a dynamic weekly group. This is an example of ___________.
religious revitalization as a consequence of competition
Christianity is a very small minority in:
Asia
Which of the following is true about the sociological study of religion?
Sociological analyses of religion privilege social forces as explanatory factors for its appeal, rather than spiritual or psychological forces.
According to Durkheim, what is the most significant distinction in any religion?
he distinction between the sacred and the profane
Secularization is:
the diminished influence and power of religion in society
In the first stage of most new religious movements, the movement usually derives most of its life from _________.
a charismatic leader
The person most likely to participate in the New Age movement is:
a recently divorced man who just dropped out of college
Ming Wei has been given an assignment to write a paper explaining how Christianity and Islam spread across the world. What are the most important explanatory factors she should include in her paper?
military force and missionary work
Jessica and her husband, Jim, are working-class Republicans who are strongly opposed to same-sex marriage. Jessica works at a day-care center out of necessity, although both she and Jim would prefer it if she could stay home instead. Jessica and Jim are most likely ______.
conservative Protestants
At the time of the Revolutionary War, ______ Americans belonged to a religious organization. In the 1990s, that number was ______.
one in six; two in three
What is the definition of civil religion?
a set of religious beliefs through which a society interprets its own history in light of some conception of ultimate reality
The text notes both a rising popularity in conservative Christian denominations and increasing numbers of both Catholics and Muslims in the United States. How do explanations for these phenomena differ?
The increase in number of conservative Christians seems to be largely a result of conversion from mainline Protestant churches, whereas the rise of Catholicism and Islam is largely a result of immigration.
Belief in a single, all-knowing, all-powerful god is called:
monotheism
Mae just joined a religious group that holds weekly support groups for divorced people; has workshops on bringing spirituality into our everyday lives; and provides life coaches who help members learn to invest, train for new jobs, and set and maintain goals in their lives. This religious group would be an example of a:
world-affirming religion
According to the text, which of the following was arguably a consequence of the third religious disestablishment in the 1960s and 1970s?
the growing strength of conservative religious denominations during and after that period
Lutheran Church
denomination
Heaven’s Gate
cult
Roman Catholic Church
church
Early Mormanism
sect
Why did Marx call religion the “opium of the people”?
He argued that a belief in afterlife rewards for living a meek and humble life encouraged people to accept their oppression in this life, rather than struggling against injustice.
What are some of the important factors that have led to the development and increasing popularity of the Islamic State, or ISIS?
the social, political, and economic destabilization of the Middle East as a result of Western presence and civil war
Evangelicals who are highly anti-modern in many of their beliefs and adhere to strict codes of morality and conduct are called _____.
fundamentalists
Which of the following hypotheses might be derived from Mark Juergensmeyer’s research on the relationship between religion and violence?
Rather than causing violence, religious ideas are often used to justify and/or escalate violence that began as a material, real-world struggle.
The connection between religion and violence is that:
violence exists in most religions and is couched in terms of the forces of good against the forces of evil
What do Christianity, Islam, and Judaism have in common?
Abraham figures prominently in each religion.
Which of the following statements about the position of women in religion is true?
Islamic doctrine places women at a level of far greater subordination than Christian doctrine.
For a religious movement to survive after its leader dies, usually the:
new leaders establish regulations and formalize structures
Evangelicalism is:
a form of Protestantism characterized by a belief in spiritual rebirth (being “born again”)
The largest religion in the world, with 2.3 billion followers, is:
christianity
What is one of the reasons that critics of classical views on religion suggest that in modern societies, religion is losing its ability to create widespread social solidarity?
Because modern societies are more often marked by religious pluralism than religious domination, there is no longer a single set of religious values that unify the entire society.
An important underlying part of the secularization debate revolves around which of the following?
Correctc. the level of power and influence held by religious beliefs, officials and organizations in the larger society
What is secularization?
a process of the decline in the influence of religion and religious institutions
Some researchers argue that people often “get religion” when:
they have established a sense of discipline that they can devote to religious practice
Which of the following is true of the relationship between race and suburban communities?
The percentage of racial minorities living in suburbs has risen steadily over the past 35 years.
The number of children it is biologically possible for a woman to produce is known as __________, while the average number of live-born children produced by women of childbearing age in a society is known as __________.
fecundity; fertility
Wilson primarily explained urban poverty as a result of __________, while Massey and Denton argued that it is mostly caused by __________.
economic restructuring; racial segregation
According to your text, two main reasons for the higher urban growth rate in the world’s less industrialized cities are __________ and __________
high fertility rates; internal migration from rural areas
Jeremy buys a new iPhone each time a more advanced model is introduced. His discarded phones are sent out to a recycling company that ships them to India, where poorly paid workers disassemble them, releasing toxic materials into the land and water as well as into their own bodies. This is one way in which
the environmental hazards of consumption patterns in rich countries are disproportionately borne by poor countries.
What is an important difference between premodern cities and the kinds of cities that are characteristic of modern, industrialized societies?
Premodern cities were relatively small and had little to no connection with the surrounding rural areas or other cities, whereas modern cities are large and deeply connected with other cities, as well as with rural agricultural production.
A cluster of cities and towns forming a continuous network is called:
a conurbation
Why do sociologists often call poor inner-city neighborhoods ghettos, rather than calling them slums?
The present racial and spatial configuration of inner-city neighborhoods was created through coercive practices in the past, such as redlining, that forced racial and ethnic minorities into particular neighborhoods.
Placing limitations on economic growth to proceed only insofar as natural resources are recycled rather than depleted; maintaining biodiversity; and protecting clean air, water and land are all considerations contained in the notion of
sustainable development.
The job that most closely illustrates the informal economy is:
a housekeeper paid “under the table” (not reported for tax purposes) in suburban communities
Which of the following is a central characteristic of the urban ecology approach as developed by Robert Park?
It understands the formation of urban arrangements as analogous to the way plants and organisms adjust to the physical environment.
Despite the common perception that it is an urban problem, __________ is a particularly dire problem in rural America.
childhood poverty
Among other factors, population decline in rural areas is in part caused by a phenomenon in which young people leave rural areas in search of opportunities, leaving older adults behind. This phenomenon is called
aging in place.
The study of populations, including size, rates of growth, and other characteristics, is known as
demography.
What is a conurbation?
a cluster of cities and towns forming a continuous network
Zenzele is interested in comparing population growth between developing and industrialized countries. She notices that in certain countries there has been a great deal of population growth, despite the fact that fertility rates have remained the same. What is one potential explanation for this apparent contradiction?
Infant mortality rates have gone down in these countries.
According to David Harvey, industrial capitalism continually restructures space in its pursuit of profits. This process is not found in traditional cities because:
city and country boundaries were clearly defined in traditional cities, but are blurred in modern cities
Although today sociologists tend to use the terms interchangeably, ghettos are areas where particular people are forced to live whereas slums are:
areas populated by poor people
An environment made up of constructions established by human beings to serve their needs, including roads, railways, factories, and other buildings is called
the created environment.
According to estimates by the United Nations, approximately how many people worldwide lived in urban slums in 2010?
more than 1 billion
The number of live-born children the average woman has is known as:
fertility
According to sociologist William Julius Wilson, one potentially negative consequence of the civil rights movement is that black middle-class families have left the central cities, leaving only poor black families in the urban areas. This happened because:
newly won civil rights opened up new chances outside of ghetto environments
Most cities of the ancient world had an outer wall offering defense and separation, and did this largely because:
the buildings at the core were religious and political
What was one of the most significant conclusions of the fifth assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)?
Human activity is the dominant source of the observed changes in the global climate since the mid-twentieth century.
Which of the following is true of global cities, as Saskia Sassen described them?
They contain vast economic inequalities marked by prosperous central business districts adjacent to deeply impoverished areas.
Industrialization generated the movement of population from the countryside into towns and cities, which is known as:
urbanization
While many Malthusians argue that high rates of population growth, such as we are currently experiencing, inevitably lead to misery and famine, a study by the UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) concluded that
famine is less a result of overpopulation than it is of unequal distribution of food supplies.
Much of the contemporary theory and research in urban sociology focuses on cities as:
created environments or social constructions
Sherene lives in a poor neighborhood near downtown that is predominantly African American and Latino. Last spring a white couple bought the dilapidated Victorian house across the street and immediately began renovating it. This fall, Sherene noticed that similar renovations had begun on two more old homes within several blocks of her house. It is likely that Sherene’s neighborhood is in the beginning stages of
gentrification.
Demography is:
the study of populations
Warren S. Thompson (1929) described a three-stage process governing changes in population growth rates as societies move from a pre-industrial to an industrial stage. What is the central principal guiding his theory?
As societies develop, one mode of population stability is replaced by another.
The phenomenon that explains why rural places have a disproportionately higher number of older adults is called:
aging in place
William lives in Chicago but is visiting his sister, who lives in a small town some distance from the city. Driving through her town, he notices a skateboarding park built in the corner of a field. A little further on, he sees a large, colorful piece of graffiti art covering one wall of the town’s power plant. The existence of these sights in a small town far from the metropolitan center is an example of what concept put forth by Louis Wirth?
Urbanism expresses and influences the nature of the wider social system.
The first cities emerged about 3500 BCE in the:
Nile River valley
Current fears regarding the depletion of energy resources are greatly exacerbated by
the rapid economic growth of countries like China and India.
In modern societies, most of the population lives in:
cities
The rate that is calculated by subtracting the number of deaths per thousand from the number of births per thousand in a year reflects:
population growth or decline
Individuals and families living in shantytowns and favelas are more likely than their better-off urban counterparts to find work in
the informal economy.
How did Jane Jacobs argue that cities meet the challenge of incorporating strangers in a way that does not overly compromise the sense of safety experienced by inhabitants?
The presence of many different, but respectable, people on the street ensures a constant succession of eyes and ears that tend to reinforce safe and acceptable behavior.
Given past and recent rates of exploding population growth, what is the most widely accepted official prediction for the global population in 2050?
9-10 billion
Demography is:
the study of populations
Warren S. Thompson (1929) described a three-stage process governing changes in population growth rates as societies move from a pre-industrial to an industrial stage. What is the central principal guiding his theory?
Industrialization generated the movement of population from the countryside into towns and cities, which is known as:
urbanization
While many Malthusians argue that high rates of population growth, such as we are currently experiencing, inevitably lead to misery and famine, a study by the UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) concluded that
Placing limitations on economic growth to proceed only insofar as natural resources are recycled rather than depleted; maintaining biodiversity; and protecting clean air, water and land are all considerations contained in the notion of
Which of the following is true of the relationship between race and suburban communities?
The percentage of racial minorities living in suburbs has risen steadily over the past 35 years.
The number of children it is biologically possible for a woman to produce is known as __________, while the average number of live-born children produced by women of childbearing age in a society is known as __________.
An important underlying part of the secularization debate revolves around which of the following?
Correctc. the level of power and influence held by religious beliefs, officials and organizations in the larger society
An important underlying part of the secularization debate revolves around which of the following?
Correctc. the level of power and influence held by religious beliefs, officials and organizations in the larger society
A notion advocated by those who believe that processes of social change are taking us beyond the industrialized order. A postindustrial society is based on the production of information rather than on material goods. According to postindustrialists, we are currently experiencing a series of social changes as profound as those that initiated the industrial era some 200 years ago. (page 560)
postindustrial society
A society no longer based primarily on the production of material goods but rather on the production of knowledge. The notion of the information society is closely bound up with the rise of information technology. (page 560)
information society
A concept related to postindustrial society, it refers to a social order distinguished by the growth of service occupations at the expense of industrial jobs that produce material goods. (page 560)
service society
A common term for information society referring to a society based on the production and consumption of knowledge and information. (page 560)
knowledge society
Quality of a technologically sophisticated society that is preoccupied with consumer goods and media images. (page 560)
postmodern society
The reduction of global interdependence by making economies as local as possible. (page 562)
deglobalization
The World Trade Organization’s position on free trade is that it:
insists that poor countries open their markets while industrialized countries maintain barriers
The most significant political factor in speeding up patterns of change in the modern world was the:
emergence of the modern state
Globalization in the twenty-first century is:
a level of interconnectedness that is historically unprecedented
Our daily lives, our sense of individualism, our work patterns, and even our popular culture are being affected by:
globalization
The gap in economic growth between the poorest and the richest countries could be best described a
having widened from about 10 to 1 a hundred years ago to more than 209 to 1 today
The campaign for global justice:
is a movement to protest the World Trade Organization’s emphasis on economic issues over human rights issues
Jared Diamond’s explanation of the collapse of Rwandan society:
emphasizes environmental factors and minimizes political and cultural factors
Religion can be a cause of social change and is considered to be:
cultural
Which of the following believe that globalization is challenging the power of nation-states?
hyperglobalizers
Social change is a unique type of change because it
requires a significant transformation of society’s institutions and culture
Which of the following statements best characterizes the risks we now face as we enter a postindustrial age?
Manufactured risks are becoming more common than natural risks.
Postmodernists argue that we have reached the end of history because:
progress is no longer unified and linear
Those who would argue that we have come to the end of history are the:
postmodernists
A central argument of Ulrich Beck’s Risk Society is that:
the decline of social traditions and institutions make risks more pervasive and more global
The relationship between globalization and inequality is that globalization:
increases inequality as the expansion of global trade concentrates wealth within a small core of countries
Agricultural giant Monsanto is a leader in technology and the world’s food supply. It is estimated that it has widespread influence on genetically modified crops because the amount of food sold in grocery stores that has some type of genetically modified ingredient is about:
70 to 75 percent
The World Development Indicators show that the mortality for children under age 5 in low-income countries as compared to that in high-income countries is ________ times higher.
13
Many industrial workers have been unemployed and left without the skills required in a knowledge-based economy because of:
global trade and new forms of technology
As a result of globalization, humans now face risks created by the effects of their own knowledge and technology on the natural world, or:
manufactured risk
In terms of people’s working lives, globalization makes it more likely that individuals will
experience a:
self-made career path with several changes over their lifetime
The fact that cultures are neither wholly isolated nor entirely distinct, but instead constantly borrow from one another. (page 541)
hybridity
Alteration in basic structures of a social group or society. Social change is an ever-present phenomenon in social life but has become especially intense in the modern era. The origins of modern sociology can be traced to attempts to understand the dramatic changes shattering the traditional world and promoting new forms of social order. (page 541)
social change
International organizations established by treaties between governments for purposes of conducting business between the nations making up their membership. (page 549)
IGO’s
International organizations established by agreements between the individuals or private organizations making up their membership. (page 549)
INGO’s
Business corporations located in two or more countries. (page 550)
transnational corporations
Dangers that spring from the natural world and are unrelated to the actions of humans. Examples of external risk include droughts, earthquakes, famines, and storms. (page 554)
external risk
Dangers that are created by the impact of human knowledge and technology on the natural world. Examples of manufactured risk include global warming and genetically modified foods. (page 554)
manufactured risk
A skeptic believes that globalization:
has been occurring for more than a century, and its effects are overstated
Which of the following characterizes the shift to a global rather than a national outlook?
a man with a decidedly Italian accent telling a reporter he is from Europe
`The most far-reaching economic influence on social change is considered to be the:
effects of industrial capitalism
Protesters against the World Trade Organization claim that it:
reflects only the interests of the richest nations
The most essential type of employee in the postindustrial order, according to Daniel Bell, is a ________ worker.
white collar
According to the text, social change is:
the transformation of social institutions and culture of a society over time
The rise in funding for the U.S. space program during the so-called space race:
increased scientific research and support for the U.S. economy

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