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Software Project Management

Analysis phase
2nd in development life cycle
• Determine and document features and functions, approve requirements
o Less expensive to change decisions in this phase
Brook’s law
adding more people makes the project harder
• Ex – in the context of RFID
Critical path
longest path through the network of activities
• Used to determine the earliest data a project can be finished
• Each task has to depend on each other
• Determines how long project will take
Design phase
3rd in development life cycle
• Develop and evaluate alternatives
• Make prototype
Diseconomies of scale
adding more people makes project slower
Implementation/Production phase
convert business activity from old system to new
• Types: pilot, phased, parallel, plunge
Incremental development
small changes to a project
• Deploy project but then need more handheld readers
• Smaller scale
Maintenance phase
fixing or adapting system
• Track system failures and enhancements
o Enhancements prioritized based on business decisions
Parallel installation
new system runs in parallel with old during testing
• Expensive and time consuming
• Ex) live in both houses
Pilot installation
organization implements entire system on single, limited unit
• If system fails, only affects limited boundary
• Reduces exposure
• Ex) only dad move in to house
Plunge (Big Bang) installation
direct installation
• Install new system and discontinue old
• No back up – most risky
• Ex) move in to house
Product Quality Assurance (PQA
testing – Testing specialists
Project Management Professional (PMP)
Professional Certification
• Requires several years of actual project experience
Requirements creep
scope creep
• Must be managed
• Ex) when people continually ask to add small things, must say no
• Can become a problem and users keep changing their minds
System analysis and design
process of creating and maintaining IS
• Involves all 5 IS components: hardware, software, data, procedures, people
• Requires more technical expertise, business knowledge & management skill
System conversion
when converting to a new system
• Pilot, phased, parallel, plunge
System definition phase
related to interactive design process
• Inception phase ? have to decide to start the project, Netflix and streaming, get leaders behind it and support it with resources
• What are the existing technology involved
• Documenting how things work, defining old system
Test plan
sequence of actions that users take when employing system
• Both normal and incorrect actions considered
• Labor intensive
Work breakdown structure (WBS)
hierarchy of tasks required to complete project
• Good at estimating task durations
Why is systems development difficult and risky?
• Difficult to determine requirements and often change
• Schedule and budget change with scope
• Technology changes
• Diseconomies of scale
• Issues: scope, resources, schedule ? can only have two
What are the 5 phases of the development life cycle?
What tasks are performed during each stage?
Inception Phase
o Define system goals
o Determine project scope
o Assess feasibility of project
Analysis Phase
o Determine and document features and functions
o Approve requirements
o Less expensive to change system in this phase
Design Phase
o Develop and evaluate alternatives
o Hardware and software designs
o Data model converted to database design
o Procedures designed for BI system
o Job descriptions created for users and operations personnel
Construction Phase
o Systems built
o System testing done
o Users must be converted to new system
Production/ Implementation Phase
o Convert business activity from old system to new
Pilot, phased, parallel, plunge
What issues must a project team consider when determining the feasibility of a project?
• Cost – compared to similar projects
• Schedule – estimate time and impact
• Technology – current IT meet IS needs
• Organizational – fit with company culture, customs, charter, law
What is the user’s role in the requirements phase?
What happens if users do not participate in this phase?
User’s role
o Taking responsibility and for requirements
o Responsibility for ensuring complete and accurate requirements
o Must manage requirements creep
o Define test conditions
If users don’t participate
o Only implement technology if is good for organization
Need to interview users to see how they do their jobs
o Must ask users to know how to make it better
What are the tradeoffs associated with systems development?
Be sure to understand the tradeoffs b/w scope, schedule (time), and resources (triple constraint)
Tradeoffs exist in any project against time and costs
o Can only reduce time so much
o Adding people ? diseconomies of scale
o Increase time = increase costs
Only two – good, fast or cheap
What is the PMBOK Guide for Project Management?
What is a Project Management Professional?
PMBOK: project management body of knowledge
o Collection of best practices for project manager
Professional: certification that certifies that you have academic knowledge as well as real world application in that knowledge
o PMI institute – go through class, take exam
How does a work breakdown structure drive project management
Helps to see when each task should be completed in order to get project done on time
Be able to determine a critical path if given a map of project tasks with estimated durations
Task dependencies compressed as much as poSsible
Tasks may be moved to non-critical paths to shorten critical path
Example: building a house
Move landscape to when foundation is being poured, saves a week

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