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Sport Psych Midterm

Sport psychology specialists have three roles. These include
a. teaching, research, and consulting
b. teaching, administration, and consulting
c. research, administration, and teaching
d. teaching, intervention, and research
e. intervention, teaching, and consulting
*a. teaching, research, and consulting
Which type of question would NOT fall under the category of “What effect do psychological factors have on an individual’s performance?”
a. Does self-confidence influence a child’s ability to learn to swim?
b. How does anxiety affect a tennis player’s service accuracy?
c. Does running reduce one’s anxiety and depression?
d. How does punishment influence an individual’s motivation to continue participation in sport?
e. How does concentration affect performance in fine motor tasks?
*c. Does running reduce one’s anxiety and depression?
Behavior is determined by the interaction of the environment and personal makeup of the performer. This idea is an example of a
a. cognitive-behavioral orientation
b. behavioral orientation
c. cognitive-affective orientation
d. social-psychological orientation
e. cognitive-environmental orientation
*d. social-psychological orientation
Emotional disorders affecting sport performance, such as eating disorders and drug abuse, would best be treated by a
a. clinical sport psychologist
b. developmental psychologist
c. educational sport psychologist
d. Rogerian sport therapist
e. Gestalt sport therapist
*a. clinical sport psychologist
Research by Landers and his colleagues, using biofeedback techniques to train elite marksmen to shoot between heartbeats, is a good example of a
a. cognitive-behavioral orientation
b. cognitive-affective orientation
c. behavioral orientation
d. psychophysiological orientation
e. physiological-environmental orientation
*d. psychophysiological orientation
Research by Weinberg and Gould investigating sources of stress among successful and unsuccessful elite wrestlers is a good example of a
a. social-psychological orientation
b. psychophysiological orientation
c. cognitive-behavioral orientation
d. cognitive-affective orientation
e. physiological-environmental orientation
*c. cognitive-behavioral orientation
Trait anxiety refers to _________ anxiety, whereas state anxiety refers to __________ anxiety.
a. general; momentary
b. momentary; general
c. competitive; noncompetitive
d. noncompetitive; competitive
e. none of the above
*a. general; momentary
Test anxiety is an example of a
a. trait measure
b. state measure
c. situation-specific trait measure
d. situation-specific state measure
e. none of the above
*c. situation-specific trait measure
Taking an intra-individual approach to psychological testing means that
a. individuals are compared against population norms
b. individuals are compared against how they usually score on a particular psychological inventory
c. individuals are compared to norms for their age and gender
d. individuals are compared based on objective and subjective assessments
e. none of the above
*b. individuals are compared against how they usually score on a particular psychological inventory
Which of the following is (are) NOT a question(s) that a researcher using the interactional approach would ask?
a. Will highly anxious athletes perform better than less anxious athletes in situations that are not stressful?
b. Will extroverts perform better than introverts in a team situation?
c. Will highly motivated people choose to participate in competitive situations?
d. Will kids with high self-esteem prefer competitive sport situations to a greater degree than kids with low self-esteem?
e. a and c
*c. Will highly motivated people choose to participate in competitive situations?
The interactional approach assumes that
a. situational and personal variables are codeterminants of behavior
b. personality interacts with the psychological core to determine behavior
c. highly aggressive people, for example, will usually react in an aggressive manner when placed in an aggressive situation
d. a and c
e. a and b
*d. a and c
The situational approach to personality assumes that
a. individuals behave differently across situations
b. individuals behave similarly across situations
c. if the situation is strong, the effect of personality traits would be minimal
d. a and b
e. a and c
*e. a and c
The trait approach to personality assumes that
a. people behave differently in different situations
b. people behave similarly in different situations
c. personality does not change much over time
d. a and c
e. b and c
*e. b and c
The most superficial and therefore most easily changed part of a personality structure is its
a. psychological core
b. role-related behavior
c. typical responses
d. belief system
*c. typical responses
Researchers have recently used the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory (ACSI) to investigate the relationship between coping skills and performance. Results have indicated that
a. good psychological coping skills help athletes get the most out of their ability
b. good psychological coping skills are associated with continued involvement in professional baseball
c. the ACSI is a good tool to use for team selection
d. all of the above
e. a and b
*e. a and b
Recently, the “big five” model of personality has become widely accepted. Which of the following is not one of the five personality factors in the model?
a. agreeableness
b. conscientiousness
c. neuroticism
d. extraversion
e. depression
*e. depression
The research criticizing Morgan’s mental health model and the implications of the “iceberg profile” has argued that
a. the iceberg profile accounts for only a very small percentage of athletes’ performance variation
b. the iceberg profile only differentiates athletes from nonathletes and does not differentiate between athletes of different ability levels
c. the Profile of Mood States (POMS) is not a reliable test
d. a and b
e. a and c
*d. a and b
In the iceberg profile developed by Morgan, which of the following psychological characteristics that successful athletes display is typically above the mean of the population?
a. anxiety
b. anger
c. fatigue
d. vigor
e. confusion
*d. vigor
The phenomenological approach to personality is consistent with the interactional approach except that it focuses on
a. the individual’s interpretation of the situation and himself or herself
b. the traits of an individual
c. the situation a person is dealing with at the time
d. the behavior of the individual
e. the outcome of the behavior
*a. the individual’s interpretation of the situation and himself or herself
Showing a person a picture of an athlete arguing with an official and then asking the person to write about what is happening is an example of
a. objective testing
b. projective testing
c. multidimensional personality assessment
d. unidimensional personality assessment
e. psychological trait-state inventory
*b. projective testing
Participant motivation usually is the result of
a. personal factors
b. situational factors
c. a combination of personal and situational factors
d. the history of success or failure
e. none of the above
*c. a combination of personal and situational factors
The interactional view of motivation claims that motivation is an interaction of which two factors?
a. person and situation
b. goals and coach’s style
c. personality and goals
d. personality and needs
e. goals and win-loss record
*a. person and situation
An athlete is more motivated when she plays against competitors who are better than she is than when she plays better than her competitors. This is an example of which approach to motivation?
a. trait-centered
b. situational
c. interactional
d. individual
e. none of the above
*b. situational
Which is the most widely endorsed view of motivation taken by sport psychologists?
a. trait-centered
b. situational
c. interactional
d. individual
e. none of the above
*c. interactional
Motivated behavior is primarily a function of individual characteristics. This is consistent with which view of motivation?
a. trait-centered
b. situational
c. individual
d. interactional
e. none of the above
*a. trait-centered
Which one of the following is NOT a general orientation to motivation?
a. trait-centered
b. situational
c. individual
d. interactional
e. none of the above
*c. individual
The overriding characteristic of individuals who exhibit learned helplessness is
a. attributing success to effort
b. feeling their actions have no impact on desired outcomes
c. attributing failure to bad luck
d. feeling they are in control of their actions
e. none of the above
*b. feeling their actions have no impact on desired outcomes
A substantial imbalance between demand and response capability under conditions in which failure has important consequences refers to
a. arousal
b. sensational pressure
c. stress
d. state anxiety
e. trait anxiety
*c. stress
Physiological responses occur in which stage of the stress process?
a. stage 1
b. stage 2
c. stage 3
d. stage 4
e. stage 5
*c. stage 3
Arousal refers to the
a. direction of motivation
b. intensity of motivation
c. frequency of motivated behavior
d. interaction of cognition and emotions
e. a and d
*b. intensity of motivation
In Hanin’s work on individualized zones of optimal functioning, he argues that for best performance to occur, an athlete needs
a. an optimal level of state anxiety
b. an optimal level of trait anxiety
c. an optimal level of state anxiety and other emotions
d. an optimal level of arousal
e. an optimal level of physiological arousal
*c. an optimal level of state anxiety and other emotions
Hanin’s individualized zones of optimal functioning model suggests that
a. each individual has a specific optimal level of efficiency
b. performance is best when arousal is moderate
c. performance is best when arousal is high
d. the zone of optimal functioning is the same for all individuals
e. none of the above
*a. each individual has a specific optimal level of efficiency
Which of the following explain(s) why players and coaches often neglect psychological skills training?
a. lack of knowledge
b. lack of time
c. viewing psychological skills as unchangeable
d. all of the above
e. a and c
*d. all of the above
Sport psychology topics that form the basis for PST programs include which of the following?
a. confidence building
b. imagery
c. attentional skills
d. all of the above
e. a and c
*d. all of the above
When is it generally best to implement a PST program?
a. anytime
b. during the off-season or preseason
c. after a problem is identified
d. before important competitions
e. before easy competitions
*b. during the off-season or preseason
Which of the following is NOT a common problem in implementing PST programs?
a. lack of time
b. lack of follow-up by the consultant
c. consultant’s lack of sport-specific knowledge
d. generating support from administrators, coaches, and athletes
e. sport psychologist’s knowledge of psychological skill exercises
*e. sport psychologist’s knowledge of psychological skill exercises
Which of the following is (are) NOT a stage in autogenic training?
a. regulation of breathing
b. regulation of cardiac activity
c. cooling of the extremities
d. a and c
e. b and c
*c. cooling of the extremities
The two sensations that are emphasized in autogenic training are
a. warmth and cold
b. warmth and heaviness
c. kinesthetic and heaviness
d. warmth and kinesthetic
e. cold and kinesthetic
*b. warmth and heaviness
The state of mind produced by the relaxation response is similar to that described during
a. imagery
b. peak performance
c. transcendental meditation
d. deep sleep
e. progressive relaxation
*c. transcendental meditation
The premise of stress inoculation training is to
a. expose the person to increasing amounts of stress, thereby enhancing the person’s immunity to stress
b. teach both somatic and cognitive anxiety skills
c. teach people that stress is predominantly in their minds
d. teach people to appraise stressful situations
e. none of the above
*a. expose the person to increasing amounts of stress, thereby enhancing the person’s immunity to stress
Relaxation (anxiety reduction) techniques are usually classified as
a. cognitive and somatic
b. state and trait
c. sport specific and general
d. cognitive and appraisal
e. somatic and visceral
*a. cognitive and somatic
Before starting progressive relaxation, you should
a. dim the lights
b. put on soft music
c. lie down in a comfortable position
d. all of the above
e. a and c
*e. a and c
Which of the following is (are) NOT a tenet of progressive relaxation?
a. Tension and relaxation can occur simultaneously.
b. A decrease in muscle tension will lead to a decrease in mental tension.
c. Progressively contract and relax the major muscle groups in the body.
d. a and b
e. b and c
*a. Tension and relaxation can occur simultaneously.
Which of the following is NOT a coping strategy typically employed by elite athletes?
a. social support (friends, coaches, family)
b. time management
c. thought control
d. superstition
e. rational thinking via self-talk
*d. superstition
According to the study by Eubank and Collins, individuals perceiving their anxiety as facilitative (as opposed to debilitative) use more
a. emotion-focused coping
b. problem-focused coping
c. imagery
d. a and b
e. a and c
*d. a and b
The two most widely accepted coping categories are known as
a. problem-focused and cognitive-focused coping
b. problem-focused and emotion-focused coping
c. cognitive-focused and somatic-focused coping
d. emotion-focused and somatic-focused coping
e. emotion-focused and cognitive-focused coping
*b. problem-focused and emotion-focused coping
The elements necessary for achieving the relaxation response include
a. a quiet environment
b. a passive attitude
c. a mental device
d. a comfortable position
e. all of the above
*e. all of the above
Stress inoculation training focuses on which of the following mental techniques to reduce stress?
a. attentional control and progressive relaxation
b. self-talk and attentional control
c. imagery and self-talk
d. imagery and progressive relaxation
e. imagery and attentional control
*c. imagery and self-talk
Cognitive restructuring attempts to
a. identify and modify stress-inducing self-statements
b. improve problem-solving ability
c. improve attentional focus
d. identify different strategies for mental preparation
e. none of the above
*a. identify and modify stress-inducing self-statements
Which of the following is (are) NOT among the interventions for cognitive-affective stress management training?
a. cognitive restructuring
b. relaxation skills
c. self-instructional training
d. systematic desensitization
e. a and c
*d. systematic desensitization
Which of the following is NOT a phase in Smith’s cognitive-affective stress management training?
a. pretreatment assessment
b. treatment rationale
c. skill acquisition
d. skill rehearsal
e. posttreatment assessment
*e. posttreatment assessment
Which of the following statements is (are) true regarding research findings on coping in sport?
a. Athletes use both adaptive and nonadaptive coping strategies.
b. Athletes usually stick with one coping strategy.
c. Athletes who had more adaptive coping strategies had higher performance.
d. a and b
e. a and c
*e. a and c
Which of the following is NOT a stage in stress inoculation training?
a. preparing for the stressor
b. coping with the stressor
c. controlling the stressor
d. evaluating coping efforts
e. removing the stressor
*e. removing the stressor
Which is the best type of coping strategy to use in an athletic setting?
a. emotion-focused coping
b. No one type of strategy is best for all situations.
c. problem-focused coping
d. avoidance coping
e. cognitive appraisal coping
*a. emotion-focused coping
For long-term coping, research indicates that the most effective strategy is
a. active-problem-focused coping
b. avoidance coping
c. emotion-focused coping
d. cognitive appraisal coping
e. active-avoidance coping
*a. active-problem-focused coping
Which of the following is (are) strategies for coping with different emotions in sport?
a. vicarious learning
b. self-analysis
c. reframing
d. d all of the above
e. a and c
*d. d all of the above
Basic imagery training involves
a. controllability and awareness
b. controllability and vividness
c. vividness and relaxation
d. relaxation and awareness
e. relaxation and controllability
*b. controllability and vividness
Imagery involves which of the following senses?
a. visual
b. auditory
c. kinesthetic
d. all of the above
e. a and b
*d. all of the above
Triple code theory refers to what three parts of the image?
a. image itself, image meaning, somatic response to the image
b. image itself, image meaning, cognitive response to the image
c. image itself, image timing, somatic response to the image
d. image meaning, image timing, cognitive response to the image
e. image consistency, image meaning, image timing
*a. image itself, image meaning, somatic response to the image
According to researcher Pavio, what are the two primary functions of imagery?
a. cognitive and somatic
b. cognitive and emotional
c. social and cognitive
d. cognitive and motivational
e. motivational and somatic
*d. cognitive and motivational
Educational sport psychologists usually have years of training in
a. psychology
b. education
c. sport and exercise science
d. sociology
e. educational psychology
*c. sport and exercise science

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