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Sports Management Mid-Term

Trained sport management professionals have managed the sport business world since the emergence of professional sports in the country
_____ involves employees or members of the organization in the actual decision making process.
Participative decision making
All of the following are key skills necessary to succeed in the marketing department of a professional sports team except:
in-game team strategy
Sport managers in today’s sport organizations need to be aware of ever-changing management thoughts and ideas, to learn from theses theories, and to incorporate what works best within their organizations.
Organizational behavior is also characterized as “one best way” to perform a job.
The controllable variables the company puts together to satisfy a target group are referred to as the:
marketing mix
All of the following have contributed to the increasing importance of developing and cultivating a positive image EXCEPT:
David Beckham signing with the LA Galaxy
What university had the first sport management academic program?
Ohio University
According to Kotler (2003), the marketer’s job boils down to one action:
creating demand
Sport marketers should be just as focused on innovations in the world of traditional marketing as they are on trends within their particular sport.
The practice of binding a professional baseball player to his ballclub was called:
reservation system
What sport organization did Walter O’Malley work for?
formal and informal
The role of managers can be challenging as they try to assess the needs of their employees and utilize appropriate skills to meet the needs of the employees, all the while also getting the job done.
The design of new sports stadiums indicates that marketers believe that the “place” aspect of the marketing mix is becoming increasingly more important to sports fans.
Customer retention activities demonstrating care and concern for the customer following a purchase is considered by marketers as:
Recent trends in sport organization business practices have led American sports fans to become increasingly trustworthy of team owners.
The jockey club concept originated in which nation?
Participant decision making involves employees or members of the organization in the actual decision making process.
The group of consumers to whom a product is marketed is the:
target market
Two of the earlier phases used in the development of management theory are:
scientific management and human relations movement
The underrepresentation of women, minorities, and people with disabilities in the sport industry is an important issue for sport managers who value _____ in the workplace.
The sport marketer is able to control their product in a manner similar to a traditional marketer.
Why did thoroughbred racing in the early United States fail to gain popularity?
Lack of aristocratic tradition
What baseball industry professional was involved with the initial discussions of developing sport management as an academic field?
Walter O’Malley
The ability to motivate employees to strive to achieve organizational goals and objectives as well as their personal goals and objectives is an art form.
The manager determines what types of jobs need to be performed and who will be responsible for doing these jobs during the _____ function.
The _____ movement is significant in that it changed management thinking to focus on the behavior of people and the human components in the workplace rather than on the scientific approach to performing a task.
human relations
Fred Corcoran made his contribution to the sport industry by developing professional tennis tournaments.
Motivating employees on a daily basis is a constant challenge to any sport manager.
Sports marketing includes the marketing of: _____________, __________, and ____________:
products, services, and entities
Roone Arledge’s influence upon sports broadcasting included all of the following except:
significant progressions in the way that sport marketers research the demands of the fan.
Sport management structures evolve in response to:
broad social change
The process which involves assigning responsibility and accountability for results to employees and which is found in the “action” part of the management process is:
Mark McCormack’s sports marketing agency, IMG, began through a relationship with players of this sport:
Which of the following is NOT a common element used to define management?
Values, policy, and strategy
Tournaments today are often created by marketing agencies or broadcast media rather than by player associations.
All of the following are examples of a demographic trait or characteristic except:
While at a sporting event it is common for a sponsor company to offer free merchandise in exchange for filling out personal information, such as name, address, and demographics, on a specialized index card. This is an example of:
database marketing
_____ is a continuous process that involves establishing organizational mission statements, goals, objectives, tactics, roles, and evaluation.
Customer demand is more predictable in the marketing of traditional products.
____ is defined in this course as a management theory focusing on the behavior and motivations of people in the workplace.
Human relations movement
Every sport manager needs to understand the basics of being a(n) _____ in the twenty-first century.
What two themes run through this chapter’s examination of sport organizations?
honesty and inclusion
_____________________ has the aim of building mutually satisfying long-term relations with key parties—customers, suppliers, distributors—in order to earn and retain their business (Kotler 2003).
Relationship marketing
Which of the following is not a sport management structure?
_____ refers to the ability of workers to identify and acknowledge emotions when they occur, and instead of having an immediate emotional response, to take a step back, allowing rational thought to influence their actions.
Emotional intelligence
Sports marketers define _______________ as the personal commitment and emotional involvement customers have with a sport organization.
fan identification
All of the following are functions of promotion except:
pricing research
The first company to capitalize on the term official with regard to a professional sport product was:
Sport managers must master their _____ in order to be successful.
communication skills
Which of the following is NOT a step in the classic model of decision making?
Managing technology
Thoroughbred racing quickly became the most popular professional sport in the colonial United States.
_____ employees on a daily basis is a constant challenge to any sport manager.
The position description of the Assistant Athletic Director for Marketing may include all of the following except:
managing the facilities
Management is all about finding the best way to work with the employees to get the job done.
Organizing involves setting a course of action for the sport organization.
The number of sport management academic programs has declined within the last 10 years.
Functional areas of management that have been used to explain and prepare managers for the various activities they get involved in include:
planning, organizing, leading, and evaluating
On a large scale, major corporations have not changed the way they view athlete endorsement contracts based on events in recent history.
Bill Veeck believed and operated under the philosophy that fans came to the ballpark to:
be entertained
The potential for future embarrassment is a major concern in the thought process of corporations deciding whether to use athlete endorsers.
Identifying subgroups of the overall marketplace based on factors such as age or income level is considered:
The earliest evolutionary change in sports broadcasting from factual reporting to sports entertainment was seen within:
ABC’s Monday Night Football broadcast
The Cincinnati Reds were the first professional baseball team.
The emphasis on product extensions and the development of team sport promotional strategy can be attributed to:
Bill Veeck
The proper steps involved in recruiting and selecting the right person for getting the job done include:
advertising the position, reviewing completed applications, choosing qualified people for the interview process, checking references, and selecting the “best fit” person for the job
All of the following companies had early roles (early 1900s) in exploiting our country’s interest in sport through sponsorship except:
Behaviors and preferences like an individual’s beliefs, opinions, lifestyles, and habits are considered by marketers to be:
photographic characteristics
The club structure still exists as a modern sport management structure.
What other sports developed management structures similar to jockey clubs?
cricket and boxing
Keeping the financial scope of the sport industry in mind, it is important to note that sport managers need to be able to organize and work with _____, the most important asset in their organization.
The first organized group of professional baseball players was known as the:
National Association of Professional Baseball Players
When a team raises ticket prices significantly after a winning season, it represents an action consistent with the principles of relationship marketing.
The sport industry in the United States is growing at an incredible rate.
Who founded the National League?
Willliam Hulbert
Because a sport marketer has very little control over their core product it has led entrepreneurs like Bill Veeck to focus on:
product extensions
Sport management originated in thoroughbred racing in the form of:
jockey clubs
Sport managers must perform in a number of functional areas and execute various activities in fulfilling the demands of their jobs.
What was the first sport to use sport management principles in the United States?
harness racing
Current management theory stresses the concepts of employee involvement, employee empowerment, and _____.
managers’ concern with the human component of employees
The reserve system limited player movement and kept salaries low in the National League.
Loyalty to sport clubs was developed by:
The function of the management process that requires the manager to take on a leadership role and manage any differences or changes that may take place within the organization is:
Sport managers need to learn, understand, and respect the differences in language, culture, etiquette, management, and communication styles when working in the international sport marketplace.
_____ refers to the encouragement of employees to use their initiative and make decisions within their area of operations.
_____ involves measuring and ensuring progress toward organizational objectives.
Sponsorship within the sports world is a new phenomenon, introduced during the 1970’s.
Managing technology, being familiar with it, and using it to one’s advantage, is not something every manager should strive to achieve.
Relationship marketing occurs when sports organizations view their customers as increasingly valued stakeholders.
The purposes of sport marketing research include all of the following except:
allowing fans direct input into team personnel decisions
By turning a parking garage in proximity to the 1996 Atlanta Olympic Village into a mini-Nike Town, Nike was engaged in:
ambush marketing
Which of the following is NOT a practice that can raise the level of employee motivation?
Select alternatives
The modern Olympic Games in 1896 were held in which city?
Female coaches whose salaries are not equal to those of their male counterparts have filed ___________ lawsuits.
Equal Pay Act
____ are generally accepted so broadly within a community that they are considered self-evident and largely go unquestioned.
moral values
When organizations borrow, they are legally obligated to pay back _____, plus ______.
the principal, interest
Vicarious liability is:
a tort that allows a plaintiff to sue a superior for the negligent acts of a subordinate.
What area of law has left an indelible mark on the structure and nature of labor relations in professional sport leagues?
antitrust law
To be effective, discipline must meet which of the following criteria?
meaningful and enforceable
_____, like ethics, is concerned with values guiding behavior.
One of the biggest distinctions between moral decision making and other ethical decisions is:
the extensive ramification of immoral choices
In spectator sports, stadium construction projects are often financed with _____.
_____ are the fundamental baseline values dictating appropriate behavior within a society.
An athlete challenging a drug test on the grounds that it is an unreasonable search and seizure would attempt to prove to a court that:
taking the athlete’s urine or blood may constitute a seizure and the testing may constitute a search
Leagues such as the NFL, NBA, and MLB all maintain “credit facilities” because:
the leagues can borrow less expensively than can individual teams
_____ is the systematic study of values guiding our decision making.
What is the term given to the amount of their own money owners have invested in the firm?
Sport law was first documented as a formally recognized specialty:
in 1972 when Boston College Law School’s Professor Robert Berry offered a course entitled Regulation of the Professional Sport Industry
Which financial statement measures the financial performance of an organization over a specified time period, usually a year?
income statement
The U.S. Supreme Court case, PGA Tour Inc. v. Casey Martin (2001) invovled a challenge to PGA Tour rules under what statute?
Americans with Disabilities Act
All of the following are examples of “financial” mechanisms for altering competitive balance EXCEPT:
reverse-order draft
Which statement concerning the tradeoff between financing through debt or equity is true?
Generally, financing with debt carries more risk than equity
Why do economists suggest that revenue sharing, in and of itself, will do little to improve competitive balance?
Teams receiving revenue-sharing transfers may have little incentive to use the money to increase payroll, simply choosing to retain the transfer as added profit.
Sport managers need to be aware of the _____ and _____ in the sport workplace.
morality, ethics
In sport, an example of a(n) _____ is that all athletes give an honest effort whenever they compete.
moral principle
The Age Discrimination in Employment Act protects employees from discrimination on:
the basis of age for anyone of any age, except certain public safety personnel and top-level managers
The process of making a correct and fair decision is called _____.
ethical reasoning
Where revenue sharing may be effective as a tool to improve competitive balance is when it is used in conjunction with a ________.
hard salary cap
Academic discussions of morality often start with a discussion of _____ versus _____.
absolutism, relativism
In a basic sense, the financial success of an organization is ultimately dependent on:
______ is/are anything that an organization owns that can be used to generate future revenues.
If an athlete is asked why he or she strives to win, a common response would be:
“because that’s what sports are about.”
_____ argues that what is moral depends on the situation.
An _____ is a practical conflict involving more or less equally compelling values or social obligations.
ethical dilemma
Another recommendation from the ethical decision-making model is to consult an organization’s _____.
codes of conduct
_____ is similar to the regular decision-making process in business situations in that there is a given structure to follow when making an ethical decision.
ethical decision making
The concept of _______ is probably the best single measure of an industry’s impact.
aggregate market value of firms in industry
_____ is essential in scientific research, but in sport “faking out” an opponent is seen as an acceptable strategy and a way to gain advantage.
The philosophy behind a “hard” salary cap is to:
constrain all franchises to spend the same amount on payroll
_____ argues that moral precepts are universal; that is, applicable to all circumstances.
The law used to protect against ambush marketing is:
the lanham act
The Sport Broadcasting Act of 1961 does what?
Exempts the major professional sports leagues’ national television deals from antitrust liability in pooling their television rights as a league.

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