Anticipating and planning for a crisis requires the adaptive conditions of ever changing factors to be constantly assessed to ensure planned responses are consistent with potential crisis. The effectiveness of an organization depends on the ability of human and social systems to act consistent with planned responses and to adapt processes and behaviors that are appropriate for that situation. An effective adaptive system requires continuous monitoring and assessment to ensure that there is sufficient capacity between the organization’s environmental scanning system and the prevailing internal and external factors (Malloch & O’Grady, 2009, p. 129).
An adaptive model suggests that organizations are constantly assessing their internal and external environmental conditions. Organizations are constantly adjusting and modifying their operations to be able to address effectively environmental expectations and opportunities. The adaptive model for effectiveness views organizations as living organisms capable of making multiple adjustments in processes, practices and policies. It makes an organization able to shift processes and practices to be able to capitalize on changes in the external environment (Bess & Dee, 2008, p. 726).
The Model for Assessing Adaptive Effectiveness is a model that is used by organizations to plan for contingencies, disruptions or non routine events. It helps an organization to
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In analyzing the organization’s response system, the focus will be on how the organization adapts to cope effectively with the unexpected (Smith, Jennings & Castro, 2005). Such a model covers aspects such as leadership commitment, a crisis planning group, and risk assessments, operating priorities and data collection (Malloch & O’Grady, 2007). The cyclical nature of the model highlights the relationship between variables that contribute to the effectiveness of an organization’s life cycle.
What are different across organizations are the variables that account for people, knowledge and top management support. The variables operate on an ongoing basis and require proper attention to manage contingencies and cope with disruptions. With increased organizational demands, there is a growing attention to the complex nature of key variables that are central to organizational life cycles (Smith, Jennings & Castro 2005, p. 131).
Drucker,( as cited by Smith, Jennings and Castro, 2005) concludes that viewing the relationship between variables in organizations helps in identifying the principal tasks of management that initiate organization structure. Drucker’s design highlights the relationships between variables in organizational life that satisfy the need for structure. Such variables might include clarity of the organization’s structure, direction of the organization’s vision, and understanding of roles by the employees, decision making and stability in the event of disruptive occurrences.
While the Model for Assessing Adaptive Effectiveness emphasizes that these variables identify and connect the relationships between organizational life that are affected by lack of contingency planning, Sapriel (as cited by Smith, Jennings & Castro, 2005) noted that to be effective, the organization’s objective should be able to respond to the new risk. This is viewed as a critical aspect given organizations are becoming more complex with the regular restructuring, mergers and acquisitions taking place (Smith, Jennings & Castro 2005, p. 133).
Strategic steps are designed according to the different stages of the company’s life cycle. The initial stages of the company involve establishing small advisory boards to provide guidance in case of contingency. In the maturity stage, there is flexibility and intuitive decision making which allows the organization to focus on its vision. To deal with discrepancies at this stage, an external board of directors is needed to improve strategic planning. It also involves getting a consultant to facilitate strategic planning sessions and design strategies.
Dealing with discrepancies in the decline stage involves replacing ineffective managers and policies (Smith, Jennings & Castro, 2005). Leadership is an influence relationship among leaders and their collaborators who carryout changes that reflect their mutual purposes (Rost as cited by Smith, Jennings & Castro, 2005). The types of influence vary with organizations. Leaders should be aware of the most prevalent types of influence which will determine the difference between management and leadership.
Influence strategies that are commonly used by managers include reason, bargaining, sanctions, assertiveness and higher authority. Managers use influence based on their relative power and the organization’s culture. Leaders exercise influence to demonstrate a commitment to the mission and goals of the organization. The adaptive effectiveness model stipulates that it is important for leadership to train employees in company policies and give them an opportunity to respond to unexpected events.
To be able to survive a contingency or disruptive event, effective leadership is necessary to analyze the ability for the company to respond and cope effectively. The model for adaptive effectiveness allows managers to respond to crisis within the organization. It enables managers to focus on preparing strategic plans for the organization as information is gathered for initial assessment (Smith, Jennings & Castro, 2005). References Malloch, K. & Porter-O’Grady, T. (2009) The quantum leader: applications for the new world of work.
United States: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. P. 90 Bess, J. L. & Dee, J. R. (2008) Understanding college and university organization: theories for effective policy and practice. United States: Stylus Publishing. P. 726 Smith, C. , Jennings, C. & Castro, N. (2005) Model for assessing adaptive effectiveness Development. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, Vol. 13, Issue 3. United States: Blackwell Publishing. P 129-137 Porter-O’Grady, T. & Malloch, K. (2007) Quantum leadership: a resource for health care Innovation. United States: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.