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Stress Management Midterm

What kind of stressors do younger college students face?
Lifestyle changes, academic pressures, finances, love and relationships, friendships, sex, STIs, sexual violence, shyness, jealousy, and breakups
Acquaintance rape
Rape by a person known by the victim. 25% women report being raped. 84% of assailants were dating partners/acquaintances.
What are the 2 most common eating disorders?
Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa
What is anorexia?
a preoccupation with being thin and dieting, leading to excessive weight loss
What is bulimia?
Repeated episodes of binge eating, followed by purging
AIDS
A serious (often fatal) disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles.
Course overload
Having too many courses or courses to difficult to complete well during one semester
Erotic love
Highly idealized love based on physical beauty; these type of lovers are inclined to feel love at first sight but it doesn’t usually last long
HIV
A virus that weakens the body’s immune system, leading to life-threatening infections; causes AIDS.
Jealousy
Related to the fear of losing something
Ludic love
A playful, flirtatious type of love involving no long commitment.
Manic love
A combination of passionate love and flirtatious playing love characterized by jealousy and irrational joy that usually does not result in a long commitment.
STIs
Sexually transmitted infections
Shyness
Worrying about what others think of you. To overcome, recognize strengths/weaknesses, and set goals to improve.
Storgic love
A calm compassionate kind of love conceiving a long commitment
Lazarus’ Theory of Appraisal
Before emotion occurs, people make an automatic (often unconscious) assessment of what is happening and what it may mean for themselves of those dear to them. Event->Thinking->Simultaneous Arousal and Emotion. Primary, secondary, and reappraisal.
Stress model
Stress model
Situation ? perceived as stressful ? emotional arousal ? physiological arousal ? consequences
Roadblocks
Ways of handling events during the stress model in order to stay away from negative consequences
What is the importance of a comprehensive approach to stress management?
It includes intervention at all phases of the stress theory model and multiple ways of intervening at each phase.
What is the importance of making a commitment to controlling stress in life?
It can help prolong illness and chronic stress.
Eustress
Stress resulting in positive consequences like personal growth (like taking a really hard class that is difficult and stressful but, in the end, leads to personal growth)
Task-oriented coping
Taking direct action to situation to reduce stress (studying for a test in a class you’re not doing well in)
Emotion-oriented coping
Changing emotional mindset in response to stressors; reframing the problem in such a way that is no longer seems negative (positive thinking or relating a stressor to something you enjoy can relieve stress)
Cognitive appraisal
The interpretation of stress; everyone interprets differently
Coping
How one manages stress
Distress
A negative stress that can lead to decrease in personal growth/performance
Primary appraisal
Initial decision regarding whether an event is harmful
Reappraisal
Rethinking the meaning of emotionally charged events in ways that alter their emotional impact
Secondary appraisal
Evaluate resources and their effectiveness
Self-efficacy
Belief in one’s ability to perform a task successfully
Stress, as defined by Lazarus
Stress is a condition or feeling experienced when a person perceives that demands exceed the personal and social resources the individual is able to mobilize.
How does nutrition affect stress?
No conclusive evidence; food substances can produce a stresslike response, that other substances provided by foods can be depleted by stress, and that certain stress-related illnesses can be exacerbated by dietary habits.
What constitutes a healthy diet?
To be nutritionally healthy, you need to maintain a balanced diet. A balanced diet is one that contains a variety of foods that will provide you with a variety of nutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals,
vitamins, and water).
How is nutrition related to chronic diseases?
Low fiber, high cholesterol, and high fat diets have been tied to many diseases.
Pseudostressors
Colas, coffee, tea, chocolate, nicotine.
What is the potential effect of stress on vitamins and minerals?
Chronic stress depletes the amount of vitamins our bodies produce
What is the relationship between sugar and stress and salt and stress?
Sugar can cause hypoglycemia and requires vitamins to break it down. Salt can lead to high blood pressure, so when coupled with stress, salt can be very dangerous.
List several ways that stressors in the diet can be reduced.
Eat a balanced diet, limit saturated fats and increase fiber, add cruciferous vegetables and limit alcohol, be realistic about weight, limit intake of pseudostressors, during stressful times supplement with vitamins, limit sugar, limit processed flour, limit sodium
Relationship between noise and stress?
Loud noise leads to stress
Relationship between major life events, social support, and daily hassles and stress?
Social support effective roadblock for major life events; daily hassles cause more stress than major life events
What is BMI?
Body weight relative to height. Calculated by dividing the weight (kg)/ (height in meters)^2 OR [weight (lbs)/ height (in)^2] x 703
What is BMR?
BMR, or Basal Metabolic Rate, is the resting energy use of an awake, alert person.
Hypoglycemia
Abnormally low blood sugar level
Uplifts
The positive experiences in life, which may neutralize the effects of many hassles.
What are some sources of work-related stress?
Relationships at work, organization/structure, boss, poor working conditions, physical danger, over promotion
How has technology contributed to work-related stress?
Being always “on call” stressful,
How are stressful workplaces defined?
Role overload, role insufficiency, role ambiguity, role conflict, job dissatisfaction, work environment
Describe a workaholic
Use work to escape feelings, always connected to work and ignoring everything else
6 ways to combat workaholism?
Shift values, Evaluate the impact, Learn to say no, Don’t multitask, Rest day, Be efficient
Burnout
A state of physical, emotional, and mental exhaustion created by long-term involvement in an emotionally demanding situation and accompanied by lowered performance and motivation.
5 stages of burnout?
Honeymoon, fuel shortage, chronic symptoms, crisis, hitting the wall
6 ways to combat burnout
Identify value/meaning to what you’re doing, find enjoyable activities, create a support group, take care of yourself, practice relaxation techniques, do something silly
Discuss women in the workforce as it relates to stress in their lives
Career blocks, sexual harassment, male-dominated climate, performance pressure, gender stereotyping, isolation, lack of role models
Stress women face working at home
Denigration of role, role overload, role insufficiency, role conflict, role ambiguity
Examples of interventions for occupational stress
Perception interventions, emotional arousal, physiological arousal
Role ambiguity
Uncertainty about what the organization expects from the employee in terms of what to do or how to do it.
Role conflict
A situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations.
Spillover theory
People who are happy and satified with work often choose leisure activities that mimic it
Compensation theory
Leisure is what we do to compensate for the demands of work
Resource drain theory
Resources devoted to one domain are not available to the other
Examples of life-situation interventions
Active listening, explain your thoughts/feelings, explore alternatives. Describe, express, specify change, consequences.
Assertive
Acting in a way to get what one is entitled to, one’s rights, but at the expense of someone else’s rights.
Nonassertive
Giving up what one is entitled to, one’s rights, in order to not upset other person.
Aggressive
only the immediate needs of the self are considered rather than the needs of others.
Suggested techniques for resolving conflict and improving both nonverbal and verbal communication in general
Be knowledgable about the topic, have credible information, choose effective medium, know about the other person. Body language, do not assume — make sure you’re on the same page as other person.
Emotional intelligence
The ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions. (Being able to see when someone or oneself is emotionally distraught and having the ability to help them)
Technostress
Result of fast paced life, dependent on technologies. (Results from being “on call” with work)
Improving time management skills
Assess how you spend time, set goals, prioritize, schedule, maximize rewards, say no, delegate to friends/family, don’t multitask, limit interruptions, invest time
Discuss the relationship of social support to stress management and describe
the barriers that often interfere with the development of a strong social support system
Social support has been shown to relieve a large amount of stress for people associated in these groups. They are difficult to form since they require people with similar issues, acceptance, ability to not fear rejection/embarrassment from group

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