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Study Guide Test 4

Muscular strength is assessed by measuring
the amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort
Muscular endurance is assessed by measuring
the ability to hold or repeat a muscular contraction for a long time (planks/push-ups)
A motor unit is made up of
a nerve connected to a number of muscle fibers
A muscle fiber is
muscles consist of individual muscle cells connected in bundles
Hypertrophy is defined as
an increased in the size of muscle fibers, usually stimulated by muscular overload, as occurs during strength training (atrophy is opposite)
Slow twitch muscle fibers are characterized by
relatively fatigue – resistant but they don’t contract as rapidly or strongly as fast- twitch muscles. Energy system that fuels slow-twitch fibers is aerobic (oxidative) typically reddish in color
Fast twitch muscle fibers are characterized by
Contract more rapidly/forcefully than slow-twitch fibers but fatigue more quickly, white-ish in color relies on anaerobic metabolism (non-oxidative)
Activities that would predominantly use slow-twitch muscle fibers are
endurance activities like jogging, distance running, swimming long distance
Activities that would predominantly use fast-twitch muscle fibers are
strength, power-lifting activities (sprinting) shot-put, lifting weights, kicking a soccer ball, swinging a baseball bat
Injuries such as low back pain are reduced if the spine is properly aligned by strong muscles in
Proper alignment
What percentage of all Americans will be afflicted with low back pain at some point in their life?
85 %
Strength training improves body composition primarily by .
increasing muscle mass and decreasing fat-free mass
An essential hormone that men have in higher amounts than women and that allows men to build more muscle mass than women is
Testosterone – principal male hormone responsible for the development of secondary sex characteristics and important in increasing muscle size.
Which of the following is a result of inactivity and aging?
A lifelong program of regular strength training prevents muscle and nerve from degeneration. After years of inactivity and strength loss people may have trouble performing even the simplest activity such as walking up a flight of stairs or doing yard work. Aging and inactivity also cause muscles to become slower and therefore less able to perform quick powerful movements. Strength training helps maintain motor nerve connections and the quickness of muscles.
People typically begin to lose muscle mass after age
30, a condition called sarcopenia
Which of the following is a cause of the decrease in muscle strength often associated with aging?
By age 75 – about 25% of men and 75% of women cannot lift more than 10 lbs overhead. Sarcopenia – occurs to inactivity
Strength training helps in the prevention and management of chronic disease by
lessening bone loss, strength training may even build bone mass
Isometric exercise is best described as applying force .
False; best described as a muscle contraction without a change in length of muscle or the angle in the joint on which the muscle acts. Muscle contracts = no movement
Metabolic rate increases if
You have high muscle mass, regular exercise/strength training will boost it up by 15%, increasing temperature causing you to burn more calories.
Which of the following is an advantage of isometric or static exercises
bone strengthening muscles after an injury/surgery when movement of the afflicted joint could delay healing
Muscular force exerted as a muscle shortens is best classified as
Concentric muscle contraction
A muscle lengthens as it contracts during a(n
eccentric muscle contraction also called pilometric contraction
A good resistance training technique for developing explosive strength is
hydraulic training, constant resistance and variable resistance exercise
A type of isotonic exercise used by athletes during training to simulate movement during sprinting or throwing is called
speed loading – moving a load as rapidly as possible
An exercise in which the individual jumps from a platform to the ground and then back up on the platform is an example of which of the following?
Plyometrics
Isokinetic exercise is best described as applying force
exerting force at a constant speed against an equal force
Compared to free weights, weight machines are considered
safe, convenient and easy to use. You set the resistance, sit down at the machine and start working
Which of the following is true of free weights in comparison with weight machines?
You don’t need a spotter, expensive, not a set motion
A type of body weight exercise that emphasizes control of movement is called
Pilates – focuses on strengthening and stretching the core muscles in the back, abs, and butt
Stability ball exercise is particularly effective for improving
can be used to work out the entire body but more effective for working the core; abs, chest and back
The MINIMUM number of training days per week for gaining strength is
2 days/week – more days you go = more muscle strength you gain
Training intensity for weight training is determined by
your current level of fitness
A recommended amount of resistance and number of repetitions for improving muscular endurance is
15-20 reps of 80 lbs for endurance
A recommended amount of resistance and number of repetitions for building muscular strength rapidly is
1-5 reps of 130 lbs
To build individual muscle strength and muscle size, it is best to
40% – 60% of 1 RM
To improve muscular endurance, it is best to
using lighter weight more endurance 15-20 reps
In weight training, a set is a
a group of reps followed by a rest period
To gain muscular strength and endurance for general fitness, the rest interval between sets should last
1-3 mins between sets. Lifting heavier then 3-5 mins rest. attempt exercise for 30 seconds
For overall fitness, you should include ______ different exercises in your weight training program.
8-10 different exercises
An antagonist muscle is one that
opposes the action of contracting muscle
A cool-down period after a weight training workout should include
5-10 mins relax
When you are ready to increase resistance for an exercise in a weight training program, approximately how much weight should you add if you are currently lifting 100 pounds?
5%
Which of the following is a recommended strategy for strength training safety?
proper technique and spotters
Recent research on men indicates greater muscular strength is associated with lower rates of death from all causes, including cancer and cardiovascular disease.
True
Increased muscular strength and endurance reduces one’s risk of injury
True
Weight training improves body composition by increasing fat free mass and raising metabolism.
True
Strength training can lessen bone loss in postmenopausal women.
True
Strength training can improve glucose metabolism.
False; Strength training can improve muscle mass which in turn increases metabolic rate
For a strength training program to develop general fitness, it is sufficient to do just one set of each exercise.
True
For strength gains, a balanced diet is more important than taking supplements
True

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