Sustainable Tourism Development: Its Impact to the Local Essay
It Is one of the most kibbles global industries, physically linking opposite sides of the globe, involving all levels of society and supporting many industries. Most sources agree that tourism is the largest industry in the world and also the one that has most growth (Nordic 2003:14). As a result of rising incomes and increased leisure time the tourism industry Is seeing a positive growth, with impacts on sectors Indirectly linked with tourism.
It was earlier argued that because of the rising significance of tourism In the world, there Is potential for making tourism Industry a vehicle for local. Peripheral development. Given the knowledge we have regarding the economic power and influence of the tourism industry it makes sense that its presence is also felt socially and environmentally. The multitude of unsustainable activities embedded in the main characteristics of conventional mass tourism, leading to pressures at the tourism destination; suggest that, tourism, by Its very nature, might be threatening Its own existence.
This represents a key challenge for sustainability In the Industry (Bedaub 2003, Robinson 1999, Tupelos 2005). The concept of sustainability arose from the recognition that the earth’s limited resources could not indefinitely support he rapid population and industrial growth as
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Tourism and the environment are strongly linked and interdependent. If tourism continues to grow, ways must be found to improve the relationship between the two, making it more sustainable. The 1987 Borderland Commission Report (WEEK 1987) has been generally acknowledged as having introduced the concept of sustainability. It defined sustainability as “development which meets the needs of the present thou compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Taking off from the basic principles of the Borderland report, the global tourism industry has adopted the following definition of sustainable tourism development: “Sustainable tourism development meets the needs of present tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunity for the future. It is envisaged leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social, and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity, and life support systems” (WATT 998). N addition, the World Travel and Tourism Council identified nine priority areas for action by national tourism organizations and industry-objectifications or organizations. These included 1) assessing the capacity dobbing about sustainable tourism planning for sustainable tourism development, 2) planning for sustainable tourism development, and 3) measuring progress in achieving sustainable development. Sustainable tourism is an adopted practice in successful customize. Customize started in sass’s.
Before that, the concept is not widely recognized or understood. It existed in a few different forms that primary try to achieve the same thing the current customize does. Customize is likely the fastest growing sub sector of the tourism industry. Over the years, customize has become more and more popular because people have begun to realize the importance of preserving the environment while achieving an improved quality of life. Initiatives on sustainable development in the Philippines can be traced back as early as the sass’s.
The first concentrated move towards Sustainable Development in the Philippines began in 1987 with the drafting of the Philippine Strategy for Sustainable Development (SAD). The blueprint for tourism development has been the Philippine Tourism Master Plan (TAMP). Begun in 1989 and completed minion, the TAMP was developed when “sustainable development” was not yet a buzzword. Thus, nowhere in the TAMP can one find an explicit reference to a policy or philosophy based on “sustainable tourism development. Yet, in its assessment of the Philippine tourism industry, the TAMP did note the potential negative economic, social, and environmental impacts of tourism development:”Whilst the long-term costs of these impacts cannot be determined precisely, there is a need to ensure that these costs re not exacerbated by new tourism development and that future planning aims to Organization (WTFO), then Department of Tourism (DOT) secretary Narration Limb pointed out specific elements of the Plan which reflected the government’s commitment to sustainability.
First, the Tamps projections for visitor arrivals had been deliberately understated based on the country economic and population growth, as well as the foreseeable infrastructure capabilities of the country. The City of Tarmac situated in the heartland of Luzon rich plain. It is bounded on the north by the province of Panamanian, Uneven Juice on the east, on the south by Pangaea and Gambles on the west. The city is almost fairly equidistant from Manila, 125 SMS. And Baggie, 127 SMS.
Flatlands and continuous plains are its land attributes with mountain ranges found at the border adjoining Gambles. Its capital town is Tarmac. It is classified as a first class province, with a total land area of 3,053. 45 square kilometers. Tarmac City has a population of 314, 155 people in 51, 703 households. Approximately 24 meters above sea level on some parts but reaching even 50 meters on large western portions. In the dawn of history, what came to be known as Tarmac today was once a thickly-forested area.
Agriculture is the main source of income where in sugar, rice, root crops, vegetables, livestock and poultry are the chief farm products of Tarmac City. Tarmac is a developing place that in economic system is still growing in term of commercial establishments, housing projects, as well as tourism wherein only limited recreational places are gaining popularity. However, although Tarmac is a landlocked area, it has the potential of becoming an alternative tourist destination. Since the city is a forestry area, it has natural attractions like falls, mountains, hot springs and lake.
Furthermore, Tarmac is piped for sustained economic development with the sufficient road network and its proximity to the airport in Clark Economic Zone. By now, UP. 5 million has been used by the Provincial Government for the improvement of the 200-hectare upland Tarmac Customize Park in Lubing in San Jose town. It is the new major destination for nature lovers and adventure seekers in the region, located 300 meters above sea level, west of the province, around 30 kilometers from the city. The Tarmac Customize Park is near the Buenos Hot Springs of Caps, where the gateway to the famous Mat.
Punctuation Trek can also be found. Sustainable Tourism Development in Tarmac can develop a great impact on the host community. When conducted in the appropriate way, it can raise man’s awareness of the beauty of the place and made it easier to see and enjoy with minimum damage to the attraction. Locally, there are numerous stakeholders. These include the Local Government Unit (Lugs), local members of the civil society, community-based organizations, as well as communities directly and indirectly affected by any development and also tourism related establishments.
The success of the sustainable tourism development will make a significant contribution o the nation’s economy in terms of income, employment, balance of payments and investment and development. The project will open threshold for the Treasonous most specially to the host community and local residents living near the sites where sustainable tourism project will be implemented. Surely, the development of the project will answer many of the nation’s problems including alleviation of poverty first in the list.
Sustainable tourism development project in Tarmac will give an opportunity to make the city known not only as the “Melting pot of the Philippines” but also as one trial beauty of the destinations. Statement of the Problem The main thrust of the study is to determine the impacts of Sustainable Tourism Development Project in the economy of Tarmac.. Specifically, the study sought to answer the following questions: 1. To identify the status of the sustainable tourism development project of the provincial government in terms of: 2. Objectives, mission and vision 2. 2 Implementation 2. 3 Monitoring 2. 4 Locations or municipalities to be developed 2. What are the profile of the existing sustainable tourism sites in Tarmac in terms of: 3. 5 Location 3. 6 Date established . 7 Activities or services offered 3. Who are the stakeholders of the sustainable tourism development project? 4. What are the impacts of the sustainable tourism development project to the local economy?
Hypothesis The research problem: Is there a significant relationship between sustainable tourism development project of the provincial government and the economic advancement of Tarmac. The variables correlated are the sustainable tourism development project of the provincial government and the economic advancement of Tarmac The null hypothesis (ho) is: There is no significant relationship between the sustainable tourism development project of the provincial government and the economic advancement of Tarmac.
The alternative hypothesis (ha) is: There is significant relationship between the sustainable tourism development project of the provincial government and the economic advancement of Tarmac. Significance of the Study This study would play a major role in building a sustainable society while perpetuating the tourism industry of Tarmac. It will be good to know the present status of the sustainable tourism development project of the provincial government to build a common vision of success and clear understanding of sustainability.
It is also important to determine the opportunity that awaits the different stakeholders including the host community and the local residents, civil society groups present in the area. To the private sectors, this study will help in identifying which establishments will be most attractive for investment and profit. The government, especially the Department of Tourism and its regional offices more specifically to the city where the study conducted can use it as a guide to identify which local tourism-related industries will need special development considerations.
The Department of Environment and Natural Resources can make affiliations with the provincial government to promote environmental projects. A copy of this study will be furnished to different tourism-related establishments so that they may have a guide on the improvement of their services and the The study may also be helpful to business students who could use the information for future investments. It will serve as an additional literature on tourism that can also be an aid for the students who will conduct studies related to sustainable tourism. Scope and Delimitation’s
The study concentrates in the sustainable tourism development project of the provincial government and its impacts to the economy of Tarmac City. The researcher limits the coverage of the study to the municipalities of San Jose, Sat. Juliann in Caps, and Mattock. This study will use a descriptive method were questionnaires are given to those people directly involved in the project of sustainable tourism, as well as the Department of Environment and Natural Resources which functions is greatly related to the objectives of attaining sustainability.
The subjects of this study were 50 employees of the provincial government incinerating in two departments: 25 employees under Department of Tourism and 25 employees of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources and 25 of the tourism-related establishments, and 25 of the host community to be a total of 100 respondents. Definition of Terms The following terms are define in accordance with their conceptual and theoretical meaning to have a working knowledge and better understanding of the research study.
Department of Environment and Natural Resources (EDEN)- is the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for governing and supervising he exploration, development, utilization, and conservation of the country’s natural resources. Department of Tourism (DOT)- a government agency in – charged with responsibility to encourage, promote, and develop tourism as a socio-economic activity. Economy – consists of the economic system, which comprises the production, distribution or trade, and consumption of goods and services in that market or nation.
Customize – is a form of tourism involving visiting fragile, pristine, and relatively undisturbed natural areas, intended as a low-impact and often small scale alternative to standard commercial (mass) tourism. Host community – communities directly and indirectly affected of any development. Impacts – The effect or impression of one thing on another. Provincial government – Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities such as development. Stakeholder – refers to parties or groups whose interest are directly affected by any sustainable tourism related activities.
Sustainable tourism – is tourism attempting to make as low an impact on the environment and local culture as possible, while helping to generate future employment for local people. Tourism-related establishments – includes lodging, restaurants, event planning, theme parks, transportation, cruise line, spas, travel agencies and additional fields related to providing services to fit the needs of the tourist. Tourism – the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environments for a period of not more than one consecutive year, for leisure, business, and other purposes.
Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES this research with concepts and findings related to the study. The materials for this review include concepts taken from books and published articles and findings from tidies on the topic. Related Literature According to the article of United States Agency International Development (SAID, 2005) Tourism, in all of its forms, is arguably the largest industry in the world, having grown rapidly and almost continuously for the last 20 years.
Tourism receipts have become critically important to the balance of payments and economic welfare of many poorer countries. In 2000, for example, tourism was the second highest combined source of foreign exchange earnings, behind only petroleum industry exports, for the 49 least developed countries (WTFO 2002). Because of this rapid growth, many developing nations increasingly regard tourism as key to their pursuit of economic growth and request that development assistance agencies give it higher priority in their programs.
The agencies have been become more interested because of the sector’s potential to help achieve many of their own development goals. This related literature provides an overview and broad understanding of tourism’s contribution to the world economy, and its existing and potential use to address global development especially for the developing countries. Tourism provides opportunities to diversify a local economy and support the formation of micro- and small enterprises which promote better lives for poor entrepreneurs, especially in rural areas where few other livelihood options may exist.
Given the knowledge we have regarding the economic power and influence of the tourism industry it makes sense that its presence is also felt socially and environmentally. The multitude of unsustainable activities embedded in the main characteristics of conventional mass tourism, leading to pressures at the tourism destination; suggest that, tourism, by its very nature, might be threatening its own existence. United Nations Environment Programmer (UNEVEN), 2001 said the quality of the environment, both natural and man-made, is essential to tourism.
However, tourism’s relationship with the environment is complex. It involves many activities that can have adverse environmental effects. Many of these impacts are linked with the construction of general infrastructure such as roads and airports, and of tourism facilities, including resorts, hotels, restaurants, shops, golf courses and marinas. The negative impacts of tourism development can gradually destroy the environmental resources on which it depends. This related literature gives emphasis on the possible effects of tourism to the environment.
Adrian Bedaub quoted that tourism is currently responsible for the largest, annual human migration in history. This great movement of people has significant positive and negative consequences on nature, societies, cultures and economies. Desired worldwide for its economic benefits, tourism is anticipated to double during the next 20 years, and the multiple consequences of such rapid growth, call for a preventative approach at all strategic and professional levels, in order to avoid negative impacts.
Considering mass tourism as a reality of our contemporary life that draws attention to one of its key players-?the tour operators-?advancing the proposition that they play significant roles in affecting changes in behaviors and attitudes towards more responsible forms of tourism. This related literature presents a few of the most important arguments that underscore that tour operators have in promoting sustainable tourism. Based on the article of Leisurewear et. Al. (Global Attitudes and Behaviors Support Sustainable Development, 2005) many advocates of sustainable development agonize that a transition to global sustainability meeting human needs and reducing hunger and poverty while maintaining the life support systems of the planet-will require changes in human values, attitudes and behaviors. Therefore, people depend on natural resources for their survival. The diversity of natural resource also provides economic and community benefits through the use of biological resources in forestry, farming, fishing, recreation and other activities.
However, the dimensions of our current resources use are to have access to their fare share of scarce resources are endangered. Thus, sustainable development that dimension of natural resource is important. The World Tourism Organization defined sustainable tourism as a tourism that “Make optimal use of environmental resources that constitute a key element in tourism development, maintaining essential ecological processes and helping to conserve natural heritage and biodiversity.
Respect the socio-cultural authenticity of host communities, conserve their built and living cultural heritage and traditional values, and contribute to inter-cultural understanding and tolerance. Ensure viable, long-term economic operations, providing socio- economic benefits to all stakeholders that are fairly distributed, including stable employment and income-earning opportunities and social services to host communities, and contributing to poverty alleviation.
This related literature defines sustainable tourism and describes the importance of promoting sustainability while achieving an improved quality of life. Initiatives on sustainable tourism development in the Philippines can be traced back as early as the sass’s. The first concentrated move towards sustainable development in the Philippines began in 1987 with the drafting of the Philippines Strategy for Sustainable Development SAD).
Following the adoption of the SAD, the government kicked of a broad consultation process that ended in 1996 with the adoption of the national plan action for sustainable development, entitled “The Philippine Agenda 21: A National Agenda for Sustainable Development for the 21st century by Memorandum Order no. 399 (Philippine Council for Sustainable Development 1997). After the SAD, the so-called “Enchanted Philippine Agenda 21 was completed by June Andean was presented to the Philippine Council for Sustainable Development for approval (Encase, 2004).
This related literature traces the story of Sustainable Tourism Development in the Philippines. Knowing the history of the sustainable tourism helped in determining where the concept began. Community. When conducted in the appropriate way, with the sustainable development aspects in mind, tourism related services can be an opportunity for a local community in terms of employment and income generation Nonhuman sustenance, 2006). Ramona Benedicts Lamp said that locally, there are numerous stakeholders.
These include the local government units (Lugs), including the bargains, as well as the local members of civil society, usually represented by non-government organizations (Nags)and community-based organizations. Managers of local tourism resources such as parks, museums, and historic sites would also be involved in tourism development at the local level. Finally, the tourism industry grouping covers the private business establishments engaged in the delivery of accommodation, transportation, and other services needed by the tourist-?in transit to and from the destination, as well as during their stay.
All three stakeholder groups have an interest in the development of an area as a tourist destination. This implies that some form of cooperation or partnership between the three groups is necessary for a coordinated and sustainable form of tourism development. Combining the three stakeholder groups with the core elements of sustainability gives one a conceptual picture of sustainable tourism development’s scope. This related literature identified the economic and social benefits brought about by sustainable tourism development with the stakeholders.
Related Studies A. Foreign University of Hawaii Mono studied the Sustainable Tourism Development. Tourism development can have both positive and negative impacts indentations. Sustainable tourism development attempts to find a balance between these impacts to create an improved quality of life for the host community and the destination. If tourism development is to be sustainable it must move away from its traditional growth-oriented model to one concerned with a sustainable set of goals and principles.
All forms of tourism can either be considered sustainable or not. Sustainable tourism must be seen as a goal in tourism development. Achieving such a goal is a difficult task to accomplish; however, developing tourism in a sustainable manner must be an important objective in the developing process. There are many stakeholders in the field of sustainable tourism. The major areas include; the host community, governmental bodies, tourism industry, tourists, pressure groups, voluntary sector, experts, and the media.
It is essential that all stakeholders work together towards the common goal of developing tourism in a sustainable manner. This study provides the basic principles of sustainable tourism development as well as the potential, economic, and environmental impacts and the importance of community involvement in the development process. That (2010) studied the number of strategic initiatives adopted by some plopped countries that other countries can adopt to achieve the balance between environmental sustainability and growth through the integration of policies that Stem et al. (2003) studied couturier’s perceived potential as an effective tool for sustainable tourism development is the main reason why developing countries like Philippines are adopting the concept for economic development without compromising the natural resources where tourism industry depends. These studies help to analyze the various successful environmental policies adopted by developed and developing countries balancing the scale between environmental and economic sustainability. Karakas, Kamala, and Choc (2001) studied sustainable development can be defined depending on the context in which it is applied.
In the context of international development, sustainable development is commonly understood in terms of the complex interrelation between social, economic, and environmental aspects of development. Despite the criticism aimed at sustainable development, its principles are still very useful as a tool for planning and policy-making. Chits et al (2011) studied that customize development will hover at the rhetoric, unless the multiplicity of stakeholders involved in the tourism matrix are agreeable on the boundaries of what constitutes customize and what does not.
Establishment of consensus on the customize dynamic will contribute immensely on the crafting of policies that will help institute appropriate frameworks to guide customize development. It is therefore concluded that good governance, positive international relations and policies are not confrontational with the West remain a major factor in determining the overall viability and sustainability of the customize sector, hence facilitating sustainable development.
However, in order to succeed an customize operation it must be economically viable as business, conserve the natural environment and provide tangible benefits to the local people. Weaver (2008) recognizes the importance of an operation’s financial sustainability as a major component in sustainable tourism. This viewed can be traced that with respect to sustainable tourism development, there has to be a positive link between environmental, economic, and socio-cultural sustainability on one hand and financial stability on the other.
Weaver and Layton (2007) studied the rapid development of an industry improvised of specialized (for example echo-lodges, echo-tour operators, and suppliers of transport services and infrastructures within a given sustainable tourism destination) and non-specialized businesses such as (hotels chains, airline and cruise ships operations, and retail travel agents), ranging from small and medium sized enterprises to transnational corporations. B.
Local Serrate (2004) studied to integrate sustainable development principles Into the country policies and programs have to bring about a fundamental shift Environment and social Justice—–what to us sustainable development means mains a vision rather than a reality in this vision However the Philippine environment is in deep trouble but we are still Hopeful. To green our country again we perhaps may need to leave our existing forests and mangrove stands (whatever is left of them) and clear-cut areas be and they will most likely regenerate on their own.
The country continues to face three broad environmental challenges:[l] urban air and water pollution;  natural resource degradation; and  declining quality of coastal and marine resources. The Philippines is a wet country anyway. But this kind of leave-alone strategy and its expected outcome assume a lot. And some of the assumptions might Just be unrealistic. Francisco (2000) studied various agencies and bureaus to explore how economic instruments or market-based instruments (Mbps) can be used aid in the management of the natural resources under their Jurisdiction as EDEN mandated.
The resources concerned include forestland, grasslands, foreshore areas, river systems and recreational sites in protected areas of the country, among others. Efforts are currently underway to carry out this task. Support provided by the United Nations Environment Programmer (UNEVEN) and the Economy Environment Program for Southeast Asia (PEASE) is consistent with the policy thrust of the government and has come at an appropriate time.
However, this study reports on the outcomes of a collaborative undertaking— between UNEVEN, the Resources, Economics, Environment Center for studies (ERECT) the University of the Philippines Los Banns (BULB) and the Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia (PEASE) to design Mbps for the Mangling Forest Reserve (MFC). Land use as a factor of production for local farmers is currently exploited without farmers paying any rent. In the past , BULB has been unable to persuade MFC land claimants of their need to pay rent, whose gross proceeds could at least cover resource management costs.
Over the last few years , however, the BULB has instructed relevant authorities to develop an acceptable accreditation scheme in consultation with farmers to promote self-management activities. In the near future, it is expected that discussions between the University and the various people’s organization will advance to the level of defining more meaningful collaboration towards the protection and management of the Mangling watershed. Alicia G. Ore (2000) said that technology might be to blame for much of the image done to the environment, but technology can also offer some solutions to this problems.