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System Design Midterm

The triple [1] includes managing Time, [2], and cost
Constraint and scope
Which of the following is true of program managers?

A. They report to project managers who represent the next level in the hierarchy.

B. They recognize that managing a program is simpler than managing a project.

C.They provide leadership and direction for project managers heading the project within a program.

D. They are responsible solely for the delivery of project results

C. They provide leadership and direction for project managers heading the projects within a program
Can you have an unsuccessful project if you meet time, scope and cost? T/F
True
A difference between strategic and tactical goals is that:

A. Strategic goals are more specific than tactical goals.

B. Tactical goals encompass broader dimensions than strategic goals

C. Tactical goals are more important for a project than strategic goals.

D. Strategic goals are long-term in nature whereas Tactical goals are short-term

D. strategic goals are long-term in nature whereas tactical goals are short-term
List 3 of the top ten most important skills and competencies for project managers:
1. People skills
2. leadership
3. listening
4. Integrity, ethical behavior, consistency
5. Strength at building trust
6. Verbal communication
7. strength at building teams.
8. Conflict resolution, conflict management
9. Critical thinking, problem solving
10. understanding and balancing priorities
The role of a project ________ is to provide direction and funding for a project.

A. Team
B. Manager
C. Sponsor
D. Customer

C. Sponsor
List 4 of the 10 knowledge management areas that will be covered in this class
Integration management, Scope management, Time management, Cost management, Quality management, Human resource management, Communications management, risk management, procurement management
Which of the following is a difference between projects and operations?

A. projects are undertaken to sustain an organization’s business whereas operations are not.
B. Operations are undertaken to create unique products, services, or results whereas projects are not
C. Projects are temporary endeavors whereas and operations are ongoing in nature
D. Operations have well defined objectives whereas projects do not need to have unique purposes

C. Projects are temporary endeavors whereas an operation are ongoing in nature
A construction company, Galaxy, buys a new brand of tiles from another company, Tiles & Floors.Tiles
& Floors has declared bankruptcy and closed down. At present, Galaxy is facing a crisis because here
re no other manufactures in the market that supplies eco?friendly tiles. Which of the following
constraints is Galaxy facing?

A. Resources
B. Time
C. Scope
D. Cost

A. Resources
Opponents of a project do not belong to the category of stakeholders. T/F
False
Approximately what percentage of the world’s gross product is spend on projects?

A. 10 %
B. 25%
C. 50%
D. 75%

B. 25%
Which of the following is not a potential disadvantage of using good project management?
A. shorter development times
B. Higher work morale
C. Lower cost of capital
D. Higher profit margins
C. Lower cost of capital
A ______ is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or results.

A. program
B. process
c. project
d. portfolio

c. project
Which of the following is not an attribute of a project?
A. projects are unique
B. projects are developed using progressive elaboration
C. projects have a primary customer or sponsor
d. projects involve little uncertainity
D. Projects involve little uncertainty
Which of the following is not part of the triple constraint of project management?
A. scope
B. Time
C. Communication
D. cost
C. Communication
_________ is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements.
A. project management
B. Program management
C. Project portfolio management
D. Requirements managment
A. project management
Project portfolio management addresses ________ goals of an organization, while project management addresses________ goals.

A. strategic, tactical
B. tactical, strategic
C. internal, external
D. external, internal

A. strategic, tactical
Several application development projects done for the same functional group might best be managed as part of a ____________
A. portfolio
B. program
C. investment
D. Collaborative
B. program
Which of the following is not true?
A. Most American companies have a project management office
B. You can earn an advanced degree in project management from hundreds of colleges and universities
C. employers are looking for project management skills in new graduates
D. It hiring managers reported that project management certification did not affect starting pay
D. It hiring managers reported that project management certification did not affect starting pay
What is the name of one of the popular certifications provided by the Project management Institute?
A. Certified Project Manager (CPM)
B. Project Management Professional (PMP)
C. Project Management Expert (PME)
D. Project Management Mentor (PMM)
B. PMP
Some projects have a senior manager called ________ who acts as a key proponent of a project.
Champion
The simple ideas of addressing the three spheres of systems management can have a huge impact on selecting and managing projects successfully. The three spheres are [x], [y], [z].
Business, organization, technology
The first two traditional project phases (concept and development focus on planning, and are often referred to as _____.
A. project acquisition
B. project implementation
C. project feasibility
D. Project close-out
C. project feasibility
Which of the following is true of the agile approach to software development?

A. In the agile method, requirements and
solutions evolve through collaboration
B. An agile approach sets scope goals, but leaves time and cost goals flexible
C. Agile is a predictive model of software development.
D. In the agile approach, requirements must be
clearly expressed early in the life cycle.

A. In the agile method, requirements and
solutions evolve through collaboration
Which of the following is true of virtual teams?

A. it is easier for a virtual team to build relationships
B. Negative incentives do not impact virtual team members
C. It is important to select team members carefully
D. As they never meet, virtual teams do not have conflicts

C. It is important to select team members carefully
Project work is most successful in an organizational culture where activities are organized around individuals. T/F
False
A ____________ refers to a product or service, such as a technical report, a training session, a piece of hardware, or a
segment of software code, produced or provided as part of a project..
A. deliverable
B. input
C. system
D. resource
A. deliverable
A preliminary or rough cost estimate is developed in the __________ phase of the project life cycle, and an overview of the work involved is created.
A. implementation
B. concept
C. acquisition
D. Close-out
B. concept
The ________ model of a systems development life cycle assumes that requirements will remain stable after they are defined.
A. spiral
B. waterfall
c. incremental build
d. RAD
B. waterfall
Project managers and their teams must keep in mind the effects of any project on the interests and
needs of the entire system or organization instead of focusing on the immediate concerns of the
project. T/F
True
______________refers to a problem-solving
approach that requires defining the scope of a system, dividing it into its
components, and then identifying and evaluating its problems, opportunities, constraints, and needs.
A. linear programming
B. independent component analysis
C. principle component analysis
D. system analysis
D. system analysis
a project life cycle is a collection of _________.
project phases
___________ are an example of external stakeholders for an organization.
A. top managers
B. functional managers
C. Employees
D. competitors
competitors
Which of the following is not part of the three-sphere model for systems management ?
A. business
B. information
C. Technology
D. Organizaiton
B. information
Which of the four frames of organization addresses how meetings are run, employee dress code, and expected work hours?
A. structural
B. human resources
C. political
D. Symbolic
D. symbolic
Personnel in a _________ organizational structure often report to two or more bosses.
A. functional
B. project
C. matrix
D. hybrid
C. matrix
Project work is most successful in an organizational culture where all of the following are characteristics are important except:
A. member identity
B. group emphasis
C. risk tolerance
D. control
D. control
Which of the following statements is false?
A. an analysis is project life cycle is a collection of project phases
B. A product life cycle is the same as a project life cycle
C. The waterfall approach is an example of a predictive life cycle model
D. agile is an example of an adaptive life cycle model
B. A product life cycle is the same as a project life cycle
Which of the following terms describes a framework of the phases involved in developing information systems?
A. systems development life cycle
B. rapid application development
C. predictive life cycle
D. extreme programming
A. systems development life cycle
The nature of IT projects is different form projects in many other industries because they are very ______
A. expensive
B. technical
C. diverse
D. challenging
C. Diverse
What term describes an organizations acquisition of goods and services from an outside source in another country?
A. globalization
B. offshoring
C. exporting
D. global sourcing
B. off shoring
_______ is the leading agile development method.
A. extreme programming
B. sprint
C. Six sigma
D. scrum
D. scrum
Which of the following is true about the agile method?
A. It is often used when a project team can
express the scope early in the product life
cycle.
B.
It is used when a project team wants to provide a potentially shippable product
earlier rather than later.
C.
It is used when project teams want to use the
predicative approach to a project.
D.
It uses several iterations or deliveries of
software instead of waiting until the end of the
project to provide a product.
D. It uses several iterations or deliveries of software instead of waiting until the end of the project to provide a product
Which of the following is a preinitiation
task?
A. Drawing up a work breakdown structure
B. developing a business care for a project
C. Drafting the project charter
D. identifying stakeholders
B. Developing a business case for a project
Administrative activities, such as archiving project files, closing out contracts, documenting lessons
learned, and receiving formal acceptance of the delivered work as part of the phase or project, are
often involved in _____ processes.
A. monitoring and controlling
B. initiating
C. closing
D. execution
C. closing
A(n) _______ is a meeting held at the beginning of a project so that stakeholders can meet each
other, review the goals of the project, and discuss future plans.
kick off
One of the main outputs of the initiation process is _____.
A. creating the WBS
B. selecting the project manager
C. developing the project charter
D. identifying the project sponsor
C. developing the project charter
A(n)_____ is a series of actions directed toward a particular result.
process
A(n) _____ is a set period of time, normally two to four weeks, during which specific work must be
completed and made ready for review when using Scrum methods.
sprint
List 3 of the 5 process groups
Initiating
executing
planning
monitoring/controlling
closing
A _____ is an important Scrum artifact used to graphically display progress on each sprint during the
monitoring and controlling process.
A. WBS
B. spring backlog
C. burndown chart
D. product backlog
C. burndown chart
Which of the following project parameters would be compatible with the use of the agile approach?
A. Projects with inexperienced and dispersed
teams
B. Projects that have more flexible scheduling
C. Projects with clear-up
front requirements
D.
Projects that have a fairly rigid completion
date
B. Projects that have more flexible scheduling
_____ processes include defining and authorizing a project or project phase.
A. Initiation
B. planning
C. executing
D. monitoring and controlling
A. initiation
The _____ process involves gaining stakeholder and customer acceptance of the final products and
services and bringing the project, or project phase, to an orderly end
A. Executing
B. closing
C. planning
D. monitoring
B. Closing
A ________ is a series of actions directed toward a particular result.
A. goal
B. process
C. plan
D. project
B. process
_______processes include coordinating people and other resources to carry out project plans and create the products, services, or results of the project or phase.
A. initiating
B. planning
C. executing
D. monitoring and controlling
E. closing
c. executing
Which process group normally requires the most resources and time?
A. initiating
B. planning
C. executing
D. monitoring and controlling
E. closing
C. executing
What methodology was developed in the UK, defines 45 separate sub-processes, and organizes them into 8 process groups?
A. Six Sigma
B. RUP
C. PMBOK guide
D. PRINCE2
D. Prince 2
Which of the following outputs is often completed before initiating a project?
A. stakeholder register
B. business case
c. project charter
d. kick-off meeting
b. business case
A WBS, project schedule, and cost estimates are outputs of the _____ process.
A. initiating
B. planning
C. executing
D. monitoring and controlling
E. closing
B. planning
Initiating involves developing a project charter, which is part of the project _____ management knowledge area.
A. integration
B. scope
C. communications
D. risk
a. integration
_______ involves measuring progress toward project objectives and taking corrective actions.
A. initiating
B. planning
C. executing
D. monitoring and controlling
E. closing
D. monitoring and controlling
Which of the following is not a typical reason that project teams would use a predictive approach versus an agile approach to managing a project?
A. the project has unclear up-front requirements
B. the project team is inexperienced and dispensed
c. large risks are involved
D. the completion date is fairly rigid
a. the project has unclear up-front requirements
Many people use _______ to have a standard format for preparing various project management documents.
A. methodologies
B. templates
C. project management software
D. standards
b. templates
A SWOT analysis involves analyzing a company’s what?
Strength, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats
The organization should complete low-priority
projects before high-priority
ones, if the low-priority
ones take less time. T/F
false
Payback occurs when:
A. the net cumulative benefits minus costs equal one.
B. the net cumulative benefits equal the net cumulative costs.
C. the net costs are lower than the cumulative benefits.
D. the cumulative benefits are double the cumulative costs.
B. the net cumulative benefits equal the net cumulative costs
A(n) _____ is a formal, documented process that describes when and how official project documents
may be modified, the people authorized to make modifications, and the paperwork required for these changes.
A. WBS
B. project charter
C. change control system
D. performance report
C. change control system
_____ refer to chances to improve the organization.
opportunities
Which of the following is true of return on investment or ROI?
A. It is always a percentage.
B. It is always a positive number.
C. It is the result of adding the project costs to the profits.
D. The lower it is, the better.
A. It is always a percentage
_____ involves identifying and controlling the functional and physical design characteristics of
products and their support documentation, and ensures that the descriptions of the project’s products
are correct and complete.
A. NPV Analysis
B. Configuration Managment
C. Project Time Management
D. Project Management information systems
B. configuration management
The majority of time on a project is usually spent on _____, as is most of the project’s budget.
A. Execution
B. Planning
C. Closing
D. Monitoring and controlling
A. Execution
_____ involves working with stakeholders to create the document that formally authorizes a project.
A. Developing the project charter
B. Developing the preliminary project scope statement
C. Developing the project management plan
D. Performing integrated change control
A. Developing the project charter
_____ are new requirements imposed by management, government, or some external influence.
A. Opportunities
B. Problems
C. Charters
D. Directives
D. Directives
Interface management involves identifying and managing the points of interaction between various
elements of a project. T/F
True
_____ analysis is a method of calculating the expected net monetary gain or loss from a project by
discounting all expected future cash inflows and outflows to the present point in time.
A. Cost of Capital
B. Net Present Value
C. Cash Flow
D. Payback
B. NPV
Which of the following processes is not part of project integration management?
A. devloping the project business case
B. developing the project charter
C. developing the project management plan
D. closing the project or phase
A. developing the proejct business case
What is the last step in the four-stage planning process for selecting IT projects?
A. IT strategy planning
B. business area analysis
C. mind mapping
D. resource allocaiton
d. resrouce allocaiton
Which of the following is not a best practice for new product development projects?
A. aligning projects and resources with business strategy.
B. selecting projects that will take less than two years to provide payback
C. focusing on customer needs in identifying projects
D. assigning project managers to lead projects
B. selecting projects that will take less than two years to provide payback
A new government law requires an organization to report data in a new way. Which of the following categories would include a new information system project to provide this data?
A. problem
b. opportunity
c. directive
d. regulation
c. directive
If estimates for total discounted benfits for a project are $120,000 and total discouted costs are $100,000 what is the estimated return on investment(ROI)?
20 %
A____________ is a document hat formally recognizes the existence of a project and provides direction the project’s objectives and management.
project charter
Which of the following items is not normally included in a project charter?
A. the name of a project manager
B. budget information
C. stakeholder signatures
d. a gantt chart
d. a gantt chart
___________ ensures that the descriptions of the project’s products are correct and complete.
configuration management
Which of the following is not a suggestion for performing integrated change control?
A. use good configuration management
b. minimize change
c. establish a formal change control system
d. view project management as a process of constant communication an negotiation
b. minimize change
Which tool and technique is used for all processes of project integration management?
A. project management software
B. templates
C. expert judgement
D. all of the aboce
c. expert judgement
Deliverables are only productrelated,
such as a piece of hardware or software T/F
false
What are two approaches for developing the work breakdown structure?
top-down approach, bottom-up approach, mind-mapping approach, using guidelines, analogy approach
Scope refers to:
A. each level of work that is outlined in a work breakdown structure
B. the end product created as part of a project that is delivered to the client
C. tasks that are decomposed into smaller tasks in a work breakdown structure
D.
the work involved in creating the products and the processes used to create them
D.
the work involved in creating the products and the processes used to create them
_____ involves defining and documenting the features and functions of the products produced during
the project as well as the processes used for creating them.
A. Collection requirements
B. defining scope
C. controlling scope
D. validating scope
A. collection requirements
The project scope statement, stakeholder requirements documentation, and organizational process assets are the
primary inputs for creating a WBS. T/F
true
Generating ideas by comparing specific project practices or product characteristics to those of other projects or
products inside or outside the performing organization is known as _____.
A. variance
B. benchmarking
C. prototyping
D. decomposition
b. benchmarking
What are two ways to improve user input that will help with managing scope?
-have users on the project team
-have regular meetings with define agendas
-develop a good project selection process for IT projects
-deliver something to project users and sponsors on a regular basis
– do not promise to deliver what the team cannot deliver in a particular time frame
– locate users with the developers
Creating the WBS is a subprocess associated with the _____ process in project scope management.
planning
_____ refers to the process of developing a working replica of the system or some aspect of the
system
prototyping
A(n) _____ is a deliverable-oriented
grouping of the work involved in a project that defines the total
scope of the project.
WBS
The project scope statement should reference supporting documents, such as product specifications
that will affect what products are produced or purchased, or corporate policies, which might affect
how products or services are produced. T/F
True
The scope of a project is clear and specific from the start. T/F
false
Scope creep refers to:
A. the tendency for project scope to keep getting bigger and bigger.
B. subdividing project deliverables into smaller pieces.
C. the approved project scope statement and its associated WBS.
D. a task at the lowest level of the WBS
A. the tendency for project scope to keep getting bigger and bigger.
__________ refers to all the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create them
scope
which tool or technique for collecting requirements is often the most expensive and time consuming?
A. interviews
B. focus groups
C. Surveys
D. observation
A. inerrviews
A _______ is a deliverable-oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines its total scope.
WBS
What approach to developing a WBS involves writing down or drawing ideas in a nonlinear format?
A. top-down
b. bottom-up
c. analogy
d. mind-mapping
d. mind maping
Assume that you have a project with major categories called planning, analysis, design, and testing. What level of the WBS would these items fall under?
A. 0
B. 1
C. 2
D. 3
C. 2
Which of the following is not a best practice that can help in avoiding scope problems on IT projects?
A. keep the scope realistic
B. use off-the-shelf hardware and software whenever possible
c. follow good project management processes
D. Don’t involve too many users in scope managment
D. don’t involve too many users in scope management
Why did Mcdonald’s terminate a large project after spending $170 million on it?
A. The company found a better technology
B. the company decided to outsource the work
C. The scope was too much to handle
D. the government requirement that promoted the project was repealed
c. the scope was too much to handle
Scope _____ is often achieved by a customer inspection and then sign-off on key deliverable.
b. vaildation
Which of the following is not a suggestion for improving user input?
A. develop a good project selection process for IT projects
b. have users on the project team
c. co-locate users with developers
d. only have meetings as needed, not on a regular basis
d. only have meetings as needed, not on a regular basis
project management software helps you develop a____ which serves as a basis for creating Gantt charts, asigning resources, and allocating costs.
WBS
Which of the following processes involves determining the policies, procedures, and documentation that will be used for planning, executing, and controlling the project schedule?
A. planning schedule management
B. defining activities
C. estimating activity resources
D. activity sequencing
a. planning schedule managment
Predecessors, successors, logical relationships, leads and lags, resource requirements, constraints, imposed dates, and assumptions are all examples of ______.
activity attributes
As the project manager for a software development project, you are helping to develop the project schedule. You decide that writing code for a system should not start until users sign off on the analysis work. What type of dependency is this?
A. technical
B. mandatory
C. Discretionary
D. External
C. discretionary
You cannot start editing a technical report until someone else completes the first draft. What type of dependency does this represent?
A. finish-to-start
B. start-to-start
C. finish-to-start
d. start-to-finish
a. finish-to-start
Which of the following statements is false?
A. a resource breakdown structure is a hierarchical structure that identifies the project’s resources by category and type.
B. duration and effort are synonymous terms
C. A three-point estimate includes an optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic estimate
D. a Gantt chart is a common tool for displaying project schedule information
b. duration and effort are synonymous terms
what symbol on a gantt char represents a slipped milestone?
A. a black arrow
b. a white arrow
c. a black diamond
d. a white diamond
d a white diamond
What type of diagram shows planned and actual project schedule information?
A. network diagram
B. a Gantt Chart
c. a tracking gantt chart
d. a milestone chart
c. a tracking gantt chart
_______ is a network diagramming technique used to predict total project duration
critical path method
which of the following statements is false?
A. growing grass was on the critical path for a large theme park project
B. the critical path is the series of activities that determine the earliest time by which a project can be completed
C. a forward pass through a project network diagram determines the early start and early finish dates for each activity
D. fast tracking is a technique for making cost and schedule trade-offs to obtain the greatest amount of schedule compression for the least incremental cost
D. fast tracking is a technique for making cost and schedule trade-offs to obtain the greatest amount of schedule compression for the least incremental cost
_________ is a method of scheduling that considers limited resources when creating a project schedule and includes buffers to protect the project completion date.
Critical chain scheduling
effort
the number of workdays or work hours required to complete a task – 5 hours
duration
the actual amount of time worked on an activity plus elapsed time – 2 days
a ______ is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result.
project
Name the four frames of Organizations.
Structural, human resources, political, symbolic
The ______ frame deals with how the organization is structured and focuses on different groups’ roles and responsibilities to meet the goals and policies set by top management
structrual
the _________ frame focuses on producing harmoney between the needs of the organization and the needs of the people.
HR
The _______ frame addresses organizational and personal politics
political
the _______ frame focuses on symbols and meanings, the companies cultures.
symobolic
_______is the number of workdays or work hours required to complete a task.
effort
The critical path of a project can change and there can be multiple critical paths. T/F
true
_______dependencies are sometimes referred to as soft logic and should be used with care because they may limit later scheduling options.
A. manadatory
B. Discretionary
C. External
D. Inherent
B. discretionary
In project time management, the main goal of _____ is to ensure that the project team has complete understanding of all the work they must do as part of the project scope so they can start scheduling the work.
A.
defining activities
B.
estimating activity durations
C.
estimating activity resources
D.
controlling the schedule
A. Defining activities
The critical path is the _____ path through a network diagram.
longest
A Tracking Gantt chart is based on the percentage of work completed for project tasks or the actual start and finish dates.T/F
true
To define activities, the project team should start with reviewing the schedule management plan, scope baseline, enterprise environmental factors, and organizational processes. T/F
true
In a Gantt chart, thick black bars represent milestones achieved in a project.
false
The technique for making cost and schedule trade-offs to obtain the greatest amount of schedule compression for the least incremental cost is known as ________.
A.
Dependency
B.
Crashing
C.
Critical Chain Scheduling
D.
Feeding buffers
B. Crashing
A(n) _____ on a project is a significant event that normally has no duration.
milestone
What are three pf the 7 processes project managers should complete that pertain to time management?
1. planning schedule management
2. Defining activities
3. sequencing activities
4. estimating activity resources
5. estimating activity duration
6. developing the schedule
7. controlling the schedule
Which of the following documents is most likely to include planned project start and end dates which serve as the starting points for a detailed schedule?
A. Resource breakdown structure
B. Milestones list
C. organizational process assets update
D. Project charter
D. Project charter

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