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The Company Management

The theory further suggests that employee see the presence of some things in an organisation set up as natural and such therefore do not act as motivators. The removal of the same would however demoralize the employees. In the same view, the theory argues that lack of particular aspects in an organisation is not dissatisfying, but adding them into the work environment would have a motivational impact on the employees. In a 1959 research, Herzenberg &Snyderman (1993) asked respondents to describe incidents in the workplace that made them either feel good or bad.

The results were that more people felt really dissatisfied while working in bad environment but their satisfaction was just normal when the environment was good. Added satisfaction in the research however came from intrinsic factors that arose at work. This theory is credited with the 1970’s increased job productivity in the United States, a precedent which was set by IBM and eventually spread to other companies (Miner, J. 2007). ERG Theory by Clayton Aldefer Aldelfer borrows much from the Maslow theory as he constructed the Existence-Relatedness-Growth (ERG) theory.

According to this theory, different employee reacts differently to their work environments based on their needs. The first category (Existence) is

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mainly concerned with seeking basic existence needs. The second category of individuals (relatedness) ride on the need to retain interpersonal relations within a group, while the third category (growth), rides on the desire for personal growth. The theory however makes conclusion to the regard that an individual employee may have multiple needs at the same time.

It also suggests that the need to satisfy a lower need is always more intense than a higher need. As such, the more frustration an employee faces in his efforts to meet his needs, the more he will regress in his performance and production in the work place. Hitachi is one company that is on record for having experimented with the ERG theory. The company motivated its employees, who in turn put more effort in the work thus increasing productivity. The company provided compensational packages to employees who performed well in the organisation.

Hitachi further enjoyed high employee retention (Chowdhury, F. 2008). Theory of Needs by David McClelland This theory is based on three motivating factors Power: Employees motivated by power like to be influential and in control. Often such employees are demanding, ambitious and forceful. Key motivations for such would be to give them powerful positions in the workplace where they can utilize their ambition. ? Affiliation: This are people who like social associations. Such are motivated by love and faith and work best in groups.

Recognition of their efforts and providing them with the right group to work with acts as good motivators ? Achievement: This category holds people whom are driven by the need to conquer challenges. They prefer moderately hard tasks and makes good use of their analytical skills to find solutions to such. The motivation for such people lies in the complexity of a problem McClelland however observes that power and achievement motivators increased as people climbed up the hierarchy, but the affiliation motivator remains constant throughout.

On the top of the hierarchy, achievement and power lacked the initial impact it had on the first tow categories. Prove to the effectiveness of this theory was an Australian research, which observed how some recruited staff members who had no prior job performance performed after being offered on the job training. The Company- Westfield Management offered one-week training for the staff members for purposes of boosting their efficiency. As a result, all the employees successfully met their job requirements (Chowdhury, Faisol. 2008).

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