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The concept of Total Quality Management

The concept of Total Quality Management (TQM) is infused within most organizations and involves the implementation of a system, which allows continuous improvements in quality in different areas of its functionality (Sadikoglu, 1008). The notion of continual improvement is necessary in order to satisfy customers, which is considered to be a measure of the success of TQM. Therefore it is essentially that TQM is an underlying theory within each of the organization’s departments.

This essays demonstrates the findings of an in depth study into the complexities of the different TQM systems, with a particular focus on the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (Baldrige Award), and the evolution of TQM from a myth into a business essential. The application of the Baldrige Award within Best Western Hotels and Motels provides a comprehensive view of the customer focus, process management and people focus that is an indicative measure of business success and failure. The creation of the concept of TQM is often argued upon.

Most agree that the origins of TQM can be traced back to 1949 when the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers correlated scholars, engineers and government officials into a committee designed to improve Japanese productivity in an attempt to enhance

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the social and economic conditions within post-war Japan (Sadikoglu, 1008). However, many speculate that the concept of TQM arose decades before in the 1920s with the publishing of Ford and Crowter’s book “My Life and Work” which discusses a similar theory to modern TQM describing it as a new form of government (Williams, 2004).

The prominence of TQM was realized in the 1980s with the adoption of the concept occurring in both the United States and Europe (Besterfield et al, 1995). The development of quality management in the USA can be particularly attributed to the foundation outlaid in the 1970s with the penetration of Japanese products and businesses and the impact of the writing of Crosby, Deming, Ishikawa, Feigenbaum and Juran (Sadikoglu, 1008). This gave rise to a greater integration between business approach and goals, and quality management.

However the heights of TQM occurred during 1987 with the creation of the Baldrige Award which may not have been ground breaking in terms of content, however it displayed a simple yet efficient method of achieving business success (McConnell, 1995). The United Kingdom experienced its first taste of TQM through the activities of the 1983-launched Department of Trade and Industry National Quality Campaign (Sadikoglu, 1008). This paved the way for the establishment of the European Quality Award in 1989.

The significance of TQM has somewhat declined within modern businesses (Williams, 2004). However, academics argue that the underlying philosophy of TQM is still an integral part of many vital industries (Williams, 2004). Literature Survey The most highly esteemed author on the subject of TQM, Deming, proposed a fourteen point model for efficient implementation (Deming, 1982). The notion behind the model was to force management to commit to quality, process design and control.

Deming advocated a statistical method of achieving quality management, highlighting the need for purchasing choices to be based on policy and quality rather than cost (Deming, 1982). This model encourages employees and supervisors to have a strong relationship through the elimination of quotas and numerical goals (Deming, 1982). Therefore the organization is inclined to place greater emphasis on training and education. A number of enhancements and modifications have been proposed to the somewhat simplified Deming’s model.

One such theory includes encouraging quality through appropriate and effective (Gitlow and Gitlow, 1994). Essentially management or leaders have four main obligations: management’s education, daily management, cross-function management and policy management (Gitlow and Gitlow, 1994). The first point, management’s education, encourages top management to seek education through the use of consultants (Gitlow and Gitlow, 1994). Secondly, daily management is an important concept as it establishes a standardized and controlled methods of daily processes and operations (Gitlow and Gitlow, 1994).

Often this is reffered to as housekeeping and is achieve by using the Standardised Do Study Act (SDSA) cycle. The SDSA cycle forces employees to follow a standardized process developed based on best practices, which is known as process management (Gitlow and Gitlow, 1994). The third prong, cross-functional management, is to create, develop, standardize, control and improve across divisions and departments (Gitlow & Gitlow, 1994). The final prong, Policy management uses a similar model to SDSA, to create a strategy for success across an entire organization (Gitlow & Gitlow, 1994).

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