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The construction industry

Many people have over the last 10 – 120 years have added their theories to The Principles pf Management, who are known as the Management Pioneers. They were the first people to study work place activities and behaviour on a major scale. Their work and experiments carried out under the auspice of Scientific Management Principles are still relevant today, along with their theories and techniques. In this assignment I have indicated the major pioneers and have described their theories relevant to the construction trade.

Notably I have included Henri Fayol and how his theory can help managers in the contemporary construction trade. Most construction companies are represented by an organisational chart. I have also included a number of organisation structure concepts. I have used one company from each Construction and Civil engineering, describing the jobs they undertake, the size of their projects and the roles and responsibilities within their management teams. What is it that motivates people to get up and go to work each morning? There are many people who take pride in their work and get great satisfaction from it.

Others may see it as a burden and simply work to survive. Management theorists and social psychologists have studied this

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question for decades, attempting to find successful approaches to management. Douglas McGregor In the 1960’s, social psychologist Douglas McGregor of MIT invented two contrasting theories on human motivation and management: The X Theory and The Y Theory. McGregor explained that Theory Y was the basis of good management practice, arguing that employees were simply not cogs in the company machinery as Theory X companies seemed to believe.

The theory’s look at how a manager’s perception of what motivates his or her team members affects the way he or she behaves. It states by understanding how your assumptions about employees’ motivation can influence your management style, you can adapt your approach appropriately, and so manage people more effectively. Understanding the Theories Management style is strongly influenced by the beliefs and assumptions of what motivates members of the team. If the belief is that team members dislike work an authoritarian style of management will be taken.

If it is assumed that team members take pride in their work, a more participative style of management will be taken. Theory X assumes that all employees are lazy and dislike work which encourages a more authoritarian style of management. It is believed that managers must often intervene to get things done. It assumes that workers. Companies that adopt this style of management tend to have a lot of managers and supervisors required at every step to keep control of the workers. There is hardly any delegation of authority and control remains firmly centralized.

McGregor recognised that x type workers are usually the minority and that in mass organisations e. g. Large scale production, X theory management may be unavoidable. This type of management style tends to be more widely applicable. In these types of organisations, even lower level employees are involved in decision making and have more responsibility. Comparing Theory X and Theory 1. Motivation – Theory X assumes that people dislike work and are unmotivated. They also have no interest in obtaining responsibility.

Theory Y assumes that people are self-motivated and thrive on responsibility. 2. Management Style and Control – Theory X management is authoritarian and centralised control is retained. Theory Y management is participative. Employees are involved in decision making but management retain power to implement decisions. 3. Work Organization – Theory X employees work tends to be specialised and repetitive. Theory Y, the work tends to be organised around wider areas of skill and knowledge. Employees are also encouraged to develop expertise and make suggestions and improvements.

4. Rewards and Appraisals – Theory X organizations work on a ‘carrot and stick’ basis, and performance appraisal is part of the overall mechanisms of control and remuneration. In Theory Y organizations, appraisal is also regular and important, but is usually a separate mechanism from organisational controls. Theory Y organisations also give employees frequent opportunities for promotion. 5. Application – Although Theory X management style is widely accepted as inferior to others, it has its place in large scale production operation and unskilled production-line work.

Many of the principles of Theory Y are widely adopted by types of organisation that value and encourage participation. Theory Y-style management is suited to knowledge work and professional services. Professional service organisations naturally evolve Theory Y-type practices by the nature of their work; even highly structure knowledge work, such as call centre operations, can benefits from Theory Y principles to encourage knowledge sharing and continuous improvement.

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