The Development of Public Relations in Indonesia
Indonesia has more than 300 ethnic groups, 14 talents languages, and about 400 related local dialects. It Is the national language Bass Indonesia that holds the nation together. With approximately 90% of the population being Moslem, Indonesia is the largest Islamic country in the world. Other official religions include Catholicism, Protestantism, Hinduism, and Buddhism. The Indonesian national system has been influenced by its colonial past. The Dutch arrived on the islands at the turn of the sixteenth century, seeking spices and wealth for expanding an empire.
The Dutch colonized Indonesia for 350 years, and Japan name next to colonizes for a bout 3. 5 years. The Japanese maintained the Dutch administrative system while they ruled. Based on what stated before, Indonesian legal system Is mixed systems, based on Roman Dutch law and Islamic law. The Indonesia republic promotes a philosophy called Pensacola as Its national policy. Pensacola advocates five basic principles: 1 . Believe in one Supreme God. Although the majority of the population is Moslem, all religions are protected by law.
Every Indonesian has the freedom of religion. 2. Justice and civility among people. This includes treating fellow human beings successfully and being helpful to each other. 3. The unity of
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There should be fairness In rendering Justice for all regardless of differences In socio-economic status. Public relations practitioners play a significant role in this unstable political, economic, and social environment. Public relations professionals should be in the frontline helping people to realize the changes that Indonesia has been undergoing and to cope with uncertainty during this transition. The least public relation practitioners can do is to help foster communication among opinion leaders, critical no-governmental organizations (Nags), and the youth.
I 2000 | The Department of Information was dissolved, under the presidency of Abduction Wad, this department is controversial because it had been in the forefront of government efforts to control the press, boost propaganda, and practice asymmetrical public relations. The Current Status of the Profession Image of Public Relations Public relations can be translated into Bass Indonesia as Hubbub’s Muskrat or common people view public relations professionals as those that only organize events and perform media relations.
Whereas the media do appreciate the information subsidies they receive from public relations professionals of organizations. Public relations practice in some private sectors and industry, particularly in manufacturing goods, is still perceived as a function of marketing, promotion, and publicity. Professional Organizations PERFUMES, the national organization of public relations practitioners, was established on December 15, 1972. Its objectives are to improve the professional level of members and help them network nationally and internationally.
Most public relations activities were conducted in Jakarta. Monthly activities, such as roundtable discussions, workshops, and the annual PERFUMES Award are among activities conducted by the organization. By the end of 2000, PERFUMES had 3000 members. Other industry-specific public relations associations do exist and have regular meetings exclusively for their members. Universities and Colleges of Public Relations The trend toward improving the quality of public relations education began as early s 1960 when the Fistulas Publicist’s Universities Pedantry was instituted in Banding (West Java).
In 1982, it changed its name to the Faculty of Communication. In the last ten years, more state universities and even some private universities have begun providing public relations education at both undergraduate and graduate levels. Today Indonesia has more than 30,000 alumni of various university communication programs (undergraduate and graduate students), 6,000 current communications students, 3,000 public relations practitioners, 2,000 of who are members of professional associations, and about 1 50 members of international organizations in communications and public relations.
Status of Consultancies As early as 1987, public relations consultants established a professional organization called Oasis’s Persuasion Public Relations Indonesia. As many as fifty domestic public relations consultants and fewer than ten international agencies are currently operating in Indonesia. Crisis management, integrated marketing communications, employee relations, government relations, media relations, and corporate social responsibility are among the specialties that are being offered by consultancy services.
Nevertheless, in the minds of foreign consultants, public relations onslaught in Indonesia seem to be the best in Southeast Asia as the number of crises they face help them to survive. Political System a closed authoritarian to a more democratic society as a result of the reforms that were begun in 1998. The basis for all political authority in Indonesia is the 1945 Constitution, or Unhand Unhand Dakar 1945. It regulates the position and responsibilities of state officials as well as relations among state institutions.
The 1945 Constitutions also regulates the rights and responsibilities of citizens. The legislative institutions consist of the president, who carries out his/her tasks with he assistance of a vice president and Cabinet. Governments at the provincial level are headed by a Governor, and at regency level by a regent or pupate. The Judiciary consists of the Supreme Court, the highest Judicial institution, along with other lower legal courts. Indonesian legal system is mixed systems, based on Roman Dutch law, which is civil law; customary law; and religious law, which is the Islamic law.
Indonesia also has a mixed economy in which both the private sector and government play significant roles. Level of Economic Development Between 1965 and 1988, macroeconomic growth plus a successful family planning aerogram combined to raise Indonesian per capita gross national product (GNP) by 4. 3% a year. From 1975-1990, the installed capacity of the state electricity company, the number of telephone lines, and the length of paved roads increased significantly. A successful satellite system, known as Appall, was established to provide a communication link between Jakarta and all provinces of Indonesia.
The rapid economic growth experienced between 1968 and 1996 greatly changed the face of the Indonesian economy and improved the living standard of Indonesian. The average of life expectancy has risen to 63 years. Birth and morality rates sharply declined during the last twenty-five years. School enrollment for all levels of education has also improved. In August 1997, Indonesia suffered a monetary crisis (inflation). The Indonesian currency was devalued by more than 80%. This devaluation significantly increased the cost of production as well as process of goods and services.
The number of people living below the poverty line increased sharply to more than 25% as unemployment exceeded 17% in 1998, according to National Statistical Bureau. Annual economic growth has dropped to less than 3% from about 7% before the economic crises in 1977. Most countries in the world have experienced the crises in 1998, compare to other Southeast Asia countries like Singapore, Indonesia was quiet left behind in stabilizing the economic of its country. As for now, Indonesia has risen and the economy has billion and import expenditure of IIS$62. 02 billion.
And according to World Trade Organization data, Indonesia was the 27th biggest exporting country in the world in 2010. Culture Most Indonesian are perceived as humble people as harmony and respect dictate relations between people. Indonesia has a collectivist culture, given that it is a rotational, hierarchical, and honor-oriented society. There is strong in-group loyalty among Indonesian encompassing family, friends, and members of the same ethnic group. In this culture, conflict is avoided and efforts are made to maintain smooth relations with others.
People find it necessary to honor older people and those of higher status who take on the role of fathers in organization. In sum, the behavior in much of Indonesian society is implicit and high in context. Although men and women are considered to be equal in Indonesian society, most of the government officials and business people have been men. Indonesian society has been dominated and led by men. However, the condition has changed this past 20 years, and today, it is quite common too see women in government offices, in politics, and in business.
Decision-making is relatively slow in Indonesia, which has negative repercussions on public relations practice where timing is crucial. With this closed system in Indonesia tradition that elderly people and senior managers should be asked for advice in organizational settings, it is difficult to have best public relations practices that emphasize dialogue through a two-way communication channel. Indonesian culture has been dominated by authoritarianism, and public relations has thus remained as a publicity function, or as a form of propaganda.
It is hoped that things will change for the better in the future with more openness and transparency in the society. Media Environment The Association of Indonesian Journalists (Perpetuate Warrant Indonesia or UP’) was founded on February 9, 1946, in Solo. For over 50 years before 1998, public relations had been limited to one-way information flow, particularly by the government since the day of its conception. It was 1998 when the era of reform began that UP’ became n independent institution. Members of the UP’.