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The Evolution of Management Thinking

Jugaad (frugal engineering)
a Hindi word that refers to creating something of benefit from limited resources (an innovation mindset).
Social forces
aspects of a society that guide and influence relationships among people, such as their values, needs, and standards of behavior.
Political forces
relate to the influence of political and legal institutions on people and organizations.
Economic forces
affect the availability, production, and distribution of a society’s resources.
classical perspective
the study of modern management began with this… which took a rational, scientific approach to management and sought to turn organizations into efficient operating machines.
Scientific management
a subfield of the classical perspective that emphasizes scientifically determined changes in management practices as the solution to improving labor productivity.
Frederick Winslow Taylor
The father of scientific management
Bureaucratic Organizations approach
a subfield of the classical perspective which emphasizes management on an impersonal, rational basis through elements such as clearly defined authority and responsibility, formal record keeping, and separation of management and ownership.
Max Weber
Introduced the bureaucratic organizations approach
Administrative Principles approach
a subfield of the classical perspective that focuses on the total organization rather than the individual worker and outlines the management functions of planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling.
Henri Fayol
a major contributor to the administrative principles approach; outlined the 14 general principles of management.
Humanistic Perspective
emphasized understanding human behavior, needs, and attitudes in the workplace.
Mary Parker Follett
advocate of the humanistic perspective; emphasized worker participation and empowerment, shared goals, and facilitating rather than controlling employees.
Chester Barnard
advocate of the humanistic perspective; contributed the concept of informal organization, and the acceptance theory of authority.
human relations movement
stresses the satisfaction of employees’ basic needs as the key to increased productivity.
Hawthorne studies
important studies that shaped ideas concerning how managers should treat workers.
human resources perspective
suggests that jobs should be designed to meet people’s higher-level needs by allowing employees to use their full potential.
behavioral sciences approach
draws from psychology, sociology, and other social sciences to develop theories about human behavior and interaction in an organizational setting.
Management science
also called the quantitative perspective; the application of mathematics, statistics, and other quantitative techniques to management decision making and problem solving.
Operations research
a subset of management science; consists of mathematical model building and other applications of quantitative techniques to managerial problems.
Operations management
a subset of management science; specializes in the the physical production of goods and services. Methods like forecasting, inventory modeling, and break-even analysis are used to solve manufacturing problems.
Information technology (IT)
a subset of management science; designed to provide relevant information to managers in a timely and cost-efficient manner. Includes software programs that help managers estimate costs, plan and track production, allocate resources, etc.
Quants
refers to financial managers and others who base their decisions on complex quantitative analysis under the assumption that it can accurately predict how the market works. The Wall Street meltdown in 2007-2008 shows the danger of relying too heavily on a quantitative approach.
system
a set of interrelated parts that function as a whole to achieve a common purpose. (An Organization)
Systems thinking
means looking not just at discrete parts of an organizational situation, but also at the continuously changing interactions among the parts. When managers think systematically, they can better handle a complex environment.
Subsystems
parts of a system that depend on one another to function. Changes in one part of the organization affect other parts.
synergy
the concept that says the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. The organization must be managed as a whole.
contingency view
also called a “case view” where each situation is unique. Tells managers that what works in one organizational situation might not work in others. Managers can identify important contingencies that help guide their decisions regarding the organization.
W. Edwards Deming
known as the father of the quality movement, which emerged partly as a result of American influence after WWII. Although, the quality movement is associated with Japanese companies.
Total quality management
focuses on managing the total organization to deliver quality to customers. Four significant elements of this are employee involvement, focus on the customer, benchmarking, and continuous improvement.
Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
a type of management where systems us information technology to keep in close touch with customers, collect and manage large amounts of customer data, and provide superior customer value.
Supply Chain Management
refers to managing the sequence of suppliers and purchasers, covering all stages of processing from obtaining raw materials to distributing finished goods to consumers.

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