There are no such things as service industries
There are only those industries whose service components are greater or less than those of other industries. Everybody is in service”. In most every aspect of our everyday lives we encounter services. For many people it has become something that is indispensable. We encounter service in different fields; In the field of economics and it is best defined as a non-material counterpart of a good. Provision of service has been identified as an economic activity that does not effect in possession, and this is what distinguishes it from offering physical goods.
It is claimed to be a procedure that generates benefits by making possible either a transformation in customers, a transformation in their physical belongings , or a change in their indefinable assets (Wikipedia 2007). One of the industries in which service is greatly valued is the hospitality industry. The hospitality industry is a sector that earns 3. 5 trillion dollars inside of the global economy. It is houses a broad array of service industries counting, nevertheless not limited to, hotels, food service, casinos, and tourism.
Diverse and global, the hospitality industry is cyclical being caught in the economic fluctuations. The hospitality industry has definitely become on of the fastest growing industries worldwide. This is be but one of the many reasons why there is a need to be able to take a step back and consider the quality of service that people in this industry are able to offer. Objectives This paper aims to study The Impact of Change on The Motivation of Service Employees in the hospitality industry keeping the following objectives in mind: 1. To formulate an approach suitable for measuring the impact of change on motivation in increments;
2. To recognize the impact of continuous change initiatives on various motivational constructs; 3. To analyze the probable consequences of the identified impact on the strategic strength of a firm; 4. To draw conclusions to the above aims and recommend improvements for motivation policy; Scope and Limitations This research will cover and be limited to being investigative and founded on the subjective views of those who will take part in the study. For this reason, the data gathered will be centered on the existing state of environment of the chosen hospitality firm.
Thus the data gathered may not be sufficient for drawing generalized conclusions for use of other organizations. The chosen method for data gathering may produce a bias from the respondents and the researcher. The soundness and consistency of findings may be affected during the process of interpretation of qualitative data. Since the process may be highly subjective the researcher will focus greatly on specific explanations while excluding other interpretations. Research Paradigm The research philosophy will be of qualitative nature, based on the interpretative paradigm.
The use of qualitative approach will entail the use of inductive research approaches. . Instead of putting existing theories to a test this study will aim to formulate new theories based on the responses given by the sample. Requiring both qualitative and quantitative techniques the study will use the following data collect ion methods: Secondary study – through a structured questionnaire Primary study – through semi-structured interviews The primary research will allow for the review and investigation of the gaps that exist which will be highlighted by the secondary research. Non-probability sampling will be used.
The sample size will depend on the size of the chosen hospitality firm. Random semi-structured interviews will be conducted. It will enable the collection of verbal and non-verbal information analyzing the manner in which the answers or responses are made. Answers may be digitally recorded if permitted. An interview in essence is a structured social interaction occurring with a researcher and a subject that has been evaluated to hold vital information relevant to the research. The objective is to obtain quantifiable and comparable information that would prove or disprove the study being hypothesized (Becker 1996).
The secondary research will allow for the acquisition of information relevant to the current research such as the unique traits of customers, market distinguishing characteristics and total service encounter environment. To validate the findings of the interviews the research the second selected method which is a structured questionnaire consisting of twelve to fifteen questions focused on attitudes of employees towards different change related factors will be used. The questions will be presented in a random order. The questionnaires will be circulated randomly to all employees via e-mail.
Literature Review The hospitality industry is said to be very volatile and requires the introduction of continuous change initiatives (Kotler et al. , 2003) . At the same time, the motivation of service employees in the hospitality industry is a critical determinant of the performance and quality of service. In order to gain knowledge in this area, a review of literature related to this field of study will be provided. It is designed to identify research which is of relevance, to situate this current research project within a context that is both conceptual and theoretical.
Since the hospitality industry covers many a wide range of services, studies on these organizations will be taken into consideration. To facilitate the understanding of motivation, several theories are taken into discussion, including the popular psychology theories such as the hierarchy of needs founded by Abraham Maslow. This area provides a foundation for the understanding of the importance of employee motivation in the service industry. What such brings and why it is beneficial to take the step towards changing how enterprises deal with employees. Review of Related Literature
This portion serves to evaluate previous studies that are of relevance to the impact of change on the motivation of service employees. In marketing text, services and goods can both be considered products (Colewell, 1991). Products can be classified as tangible for goods and intangible for services. Services are made available in almost every area of the economy: finance, health, education, business and many others including leisure and hospitality (Kandampully, J. , Mok, C. & Sparks, B. 2001) No industry can survive without services, our modern economy is flooded with services.
Even countries which are considered to be behind have fallen victims to this. This only reflects the evolution of industries; from pre-industrial to industrial and finally to postindustrial forms (Fitzsimmons, J. A. & Fitzsimmons, M. J. , 1994). Such evolution will no doubt bring about new trends in terms of production of services of organizations. Services have become the fastest growing area of international trade accounting for 20 percent of the total world trade. In the United States, it accounts for 30 percent of American exports (Rosen, D. L. , 1998).
When people refer to services they may be pertaining to pure services such as legal and medical services; however, there is more than that behind this services extend to the manufacturing, maintenance, delivery, and so on. Given the increasing relationship between services and manufacturing, more and more attention is now being given to understanding services (Rosen, D. L. , 1998). Service organizations continue to face competition that is growing continuously. Many services that were once known as highly specialized are now threatened by competitors that emerge as commodities.
In this kind of market-motivated-setting the key to profitability is dependent on client loyalty, which in turn is dependent on client satisfaction. Sustaining strong and close ties with clients in a manner that includes value past the basic services offered is vital to attaining long term contentment and client loyalty and in due course profitability. Clearly managing customer perceptions and developing and maintaining strong work relationships is essential to effective performance and client satisfaction(Church A. H. ; Javitch M. ; Burke W. W. , 1995).
The deliverance of quality service is only possible if we are able to fully understand the expectations of the customer (Shostack, 1984). With a precise conception of what the customer expects out of a service, customer service ought to be able to meet these. Here, we can describe customer service as the dealings that take place in the crossing point between customers and the organizations that provide service. This can then be regarded as an actual process with steps aimed at gratifying the expectations of the customer. In a research by Kim, H. W. & Kim, G. Y.
done in 2001, they presented a method for service process rationalization to reduce the innate hazards in a service change project. To be able to analyze this process and the customer, a service model is called for. The first step of which is coming up with a fine service description to satisfy customer needs resulting in a competitive edge (Innis and LaLonde, 1994). Based on the description areas with blockages will be identified and rationalized for effective service. After a test for feasibility and validity of the changed service process will be carried out.
Following this grounded on the model performance test about the current and change alternative can be made using simulation techniques. The last step will be based on the bottlenecks which were identified in the performance simulation, required in order to process the customer service. There are a number of customer service processing model methods. Service blue printing is one of them. It is a method that has been developed in the form of a flow chart in order to systemize the recording, depiction and analysis of service process.
One of the most significant differences of this method from others is the incorporation of customers, their dealings and their point of view in the model. Henceforth, the complete design of the service operation is seen in the viewpoint of the customer. The clear depiction of the interaction that happens between the server and the customer allows for the effortless identification of the critical process which may affect customer service. Ramswamy (1996) proposed a Flow chart for service design and management basing it on the blueprinting method.
Assuming within it a number of other modeling concepts such as process owner and decision limb. The flow chart reflects the order of operations needed in order to deliver service to a customer. It corresponds to the customer service interaction based on the blueprint standard. Describing service process with the structured design analysis (SADT) was devised by Congram and Epelman (1995). Service can be described in four points of view based on this technique: identifying the action, inputs and outputs, control and the mechanism.
It can be better understood in the formulation of questions: 1. What action is being carried out? 2. What is being changed in to what? (input and output) 3. What directs or constricts the activity? (controls) 4. Who or what is carrying out the activity? (mechanism) Although the SADT model can be used for process flow modeling, it is best used in information flow modeling, due to the complexities that it presents. The deeper examination of these models exposes problems that are built within when using a flow-diagram.
The problem of the model being comprehensive is complicated by the levels of inconsistency of the details that present themselves within the diagram. The biggest problem is that there have been few researches on the practical function of service flow models. From these problems several needs were identified for the service flow model. Firstly, since the focus is on customer service than it should focus on the flow of activity that happens between customer and server.
Secondly, it should be made from the point of view of the customer, which can be used to identify customer requirements more easily. Then, the model should be presented in a diagrammatic way to facilitate communication among customers, employees and those in the managerial level. The comprehensibility of the model may encourage a group effort among members of the organization coming from different sectors marketing, operations and the service employees. Fourth, the model should be able to reflect the four points from Curtis et. al.
1992 which are functional, behavioral, organizational and informational. Lastly, the model should be useful in the identification and rationalization of bottlenecks. Putting together all this, a method for customer rationalization is formed. This way, there is an advantage in recognizing and planning change alternatives for service situations. Capacity control, safety and security, assets and capitals, new technology and new management are five forces that have been recognized as motivating change in the global hospitality industry (Olse, M. D. , Chathoth, P. and Sharma, A.. 2001).