?Tuberculosis: The Trials for the Development
TAB infection may remain latent and not cause any symptoms, or become active. The occurrence of TAB can be increased due to epidemic diseases such as AIDS, that makes patients more vulnerable to TAB infection, this is mostly seen in sub-Sahara Africa (Mingling et al. 2011). Despite the seriousness of the Tuberculosis disease it is possible to make a full recovery from some types of TAB with the appropriate treatment. From the last 10 years a massive increase in developing new potential tuberculosis vaccines has been seen.
Most information about new vaccines and how they can reduce disease progression has been provided from some animal models, such as the mouse and Guiana pig, those two models have also given the information on the pathology of the disease (Rome et al. , 2005). However, not many things are given about the immunological level, specifically the nature of the T-cell response, which is necessary to confer long-lived resistance (Rome et al. , 2005) Robert Koch a German scientist was the developer of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was the one who discovered the first vaccine against tuberculosis (TAB) in 1882 (Daniel, 2005).
However the death of 123 selected cases made the people to believe that the new
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The Mycobacterium tuberculosis as mentioned above is a composed by different organisms, which can cause human disease, it consists, Mycobacterium Trumann, Mycobacterium Doves, Mycobacterium Malcolm, Ana Mycobacterium cantata (Taiga et al. , 2011). Because of all the human tuberculosis deaths caused by Mycobacterium Bois in Europe the laboratory strain of Mycobacterium Bois led to the development of the BCC vaccine (Lawn and Zamia 2011). Moreover, BCC is the current tuberculosis vaccine, and it has shown that it has a steady protection against the childhood form of TAB particularly in meningitis.
The problem is that, the immunological memory that BCC makes has limited life and its effectiveness against an adult or an elder is significantly debatable (Lawn and Zamia 2011). Even though it has been in use for more than 85 years it is still unknown the reason that BCC works in some populations and in others it fails (Lawn and Zamia 2011). Main Body It is very challenging and difficult to develop a new vaccine against Mycobacterium Berlusconi because it has some special features (Connell, D. W et al. 2011) From years of studying this disease it has been observed that the amount of people who are infected with M. Tuberculosis and develop the disease is minor (approximately 10%), and this shows that most people are resistance to the attack of the TAB disease (Connell, D. W et al. , 2011) Nonetheless, most likely, the pathogen will not completely disappear even if the immune system worked with effective results to the primary infection. Thus, if in any case the immune system becomes weak the latent infection will probably be reactivated into active disease (Taiga et al. 2011).
The possible symptoms of tuberculosis are presented in Figure 1 . Figure 1 . Symptoms of Tuberculosis. The grey lines show the specific diseases and the colored lines represent overlapping. The fugue was copied and pasted from midis. Com. The Bacillus Cellmate-Gu©ring (BCC) is a worldwide used vaccine that was first introduced in 1921 and is the only vaccination available to affects against the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (Mingling et al. , 2011). The BCC vaccination is considered only when a baby is believed that is going to have an increased risk of being in contact with TAB.
This is more likely to happen to babies born in areas such as the inner city of London where the rates of tuberculosis are higher than anywhere else in the country (Mingling et al. , 2011). Other reasons that are considered for vaccination with BCC are for older children who arrive from countries with high levels of the TAB disease, or to children who came into close contact with a person that carries the respiratory TAB (Greenroom et al. , 2011) Moreover, BCC vaccination will not work inclemently Tort a person over ten age AT 35 Ana It Is rarely recommended to anyone over the age of 16.
However, it is sometimes considered for adults that may eave a risk of coming close to someone who is infected with TAB. The BCC vaccine works successfully (70-80%) in the most severe forms of TAB, like in tuberculosis meningitis in children (Greenroom et al. , 2012) The second most effective approach to eliminate tuberculosis that has been undergoing human trials over a decade, which showed to be safe and encouraging level of immune response in adults, was thought to be the recombinant Modified Vaccine virus Ankara (MBA). (Path et al. , 2012).
This vaccine expresses antigen AAA from MAT (MAFIA) and seemed to be well tolerated and enhanced to the frequency f antigen-specific FIN-y by generating T cells in adults, children and infants that have already been vaccinated with BCC (Scribal et al. , 2011), (Sander et al. , 2010),. It was also presented that from MAFIA the antigen specific T cells that were induced were highly fluctuation, and could express FIN-y, TNT-a, IL-2, MIPS-џ and IL-17 (De Cannas et al. , 2010) However, a recent attempt to find a new vaccine against tuberculosis has ended in failure and lead to a huge step backwards in the progression of the disease.
As the BBC article describes the MAFIA vaccine failed to protect infants that had already been injected with BCC. The trial was performed in South Africa and tested 2,794 healthy children in the age of 4-6 months old, whereas half of them had been injected with MAFIA and the rest with a placebo. As it was reported in the Lancet medical Journal the researchers found 32 cases with TAB in those who had been vaccinated and 39 cases were found in the group with the placebo. Statistically the results were non-significant since only 17% effectiveness it was presented which is relatively low.