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Understanding Business 10th Edition, Chapter 10

Intrinsic Reward
The personal satisfaction you feel when you perform well and complete goals.
Extrinsic Reward
Something given to you by someone else as recognition for good work; extrinsic rewards include pay increases, praise, and promotions.
Scientific Management
Studying workers to find the most efficient ways of doing things and then teaching those techniques.
Time-Motion Studies
Studies, begun by Frederick Taylor, of which tasks must be performed to complete a job and the time needed to do each task.
Principle of Motion Economy
Theory developed by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth that every job can be broken down into a series of elementary motions.
Hawthorne Effect
The tendency for people to behave differently when they know they are being studied.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Theory of motivation based on unmet human needs from basic physiological needs to safety, social, and esteem needs to self-actualization needs.
In Herzberg’s theory of motivating factors, job factors that cause employees to be productive and that give them satisfaction.
Hygiene Factors
In Herzberg’s theory of motivating factors, job factors that can cause dissatisfaction if missing but that do not necessarily motivate employees if increased.
Motivators (List)
Work itself, Achievement, Recognition, Responsibility, Growth and Development
Hygiene Factors (List)
Company Policy, Supervision, Working Conditions, Interpersonal Relationships, Salary, Status and Job Security.
Theory X
Management style based on assumptions that the average person dislikes work; must be forced, controlled or threatened; prefers to avoid responsibility, be directed, wants security; and the average person is motivated by fear and money.
Theory Y
Management style based on assumptions that the average person likes to work, likes to work towards goals, people seek responsibility, people can use a high degree of creativity to solve problems.
Theory Z
Hybrid approach between Theory X and Theory Y.
Goal-Setting Theory
The idea that setting ambitious but attainable goals can motivate workers and improve performance if the goals are accepted, accompanied by feedback, and facilitated by organizational conditions.
(MBO) Management by Objectives
A system of goal setting and implementation; it involves a cycle of discussion, review, and evaluation of objectives among top and middle-level managers, supervisors, and employees.
Expectancy Theory
Victor Vroom’s theory that the amount of effort employees exert on a specific task depends on their expectations of the outcome.
Reinforcement Theory
Theory that positive and negative reinforcers motivate a person to behave in certain ways.
Equity Theory
The idea that employees try to maintain equity between inputs and outputs compared to others in similar positions.
Job Enrichment
A motivational strategy that emphasizes motivating the worker through the job itself.
Job Enlargement
A job enrichment strategy that involves combining a series of tasks into one challenging and interesting assignment.
Job Rotation
A job enrichment strategy that involves moving employees from one job to another.

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